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LIBRARY OF THE
The Committee on Lectures and Publications has
the honor to present the seventh number of the
Society's Year Book with which is combined the
Annual Report for the year 1929.
E. H. Wilson, Chairman.
April 1, 1930.
Table of Contents
Officers for 1930 9
Committees and Judges for 1930 11
The Influence of Certain Economic Plants .... 13
Medals and Certificates for 1929 33
Mutations and Variations in the Gladiolus .... 53
George Eobert White Medal Award in 1929 .... 58
Garden Clubs in Massachusetts 60
Exhibitions in the Year 1930 66
Medals and Certificates of the Massachusetts Horticul-
tural Society 67
Award to Mr. Ben Perley Poore Moseley 69
Thomas Roland 1863-1929 71
How to Use the Library 73
Gifts to the Library 75
Library Accessions . . . 76
Periodicals Currently Received, 1929 82
Benevolent Fraternity Fruit and Flower Mission . . 87
The Inaugural Meeting . . .91
The President's Address . . . * 91
Report of the Secretary 96
Announcement of Gifts 100
Report of the Treasurer 101
Report of the Committee on Lectures and Publications 108
Report of the Committee on Prizes 110
Report of the Library Committee 112
Committee on the Products of Children's Gardens . . 113
Membership in the Massachusetts Horticultural Society . 115
Honorary Members . .117
Corresponding Members 117
New Members in 1929 120
List of Illustrations
Joseph E. Chandler 8
Samuel J. Goddard 10
James Methven 12
A General View of the Garden of Mrs. Gustavus D. Parker
at Wianno, Mass., Which Was Awarded a Gold Medal
in 1929 34
A View of the Eose Garden on Mrs. Parker's Estate . . 38
The Beautiful Formal Garden of Mr. and Mrs. Harry
Hay ward at Franklin, Mass., Which Was Awarded a
Silver Medal in 1929 . .40
An Interesting Feature of the Garden of Mr. and Mrs.
Henry B. Pennell at Cohasset, Awarded a Bronze
Medal in 1929 44
The Unique Garden of Mr. Paul Frost, Cambridge, Which
Was Awarded a Garden Certificate in 1929 . . .46
The Charming City Garden of Mrs. Frederick Hussey of
Salem, Mass., Which Was Given a Certificate in 1929 . 50
Mutations and Variations in the Gladiolus . . . 54, 56
Miss Gertrude Jekyll 58
Charles Sander 65
Frank R. Pierson 65
A Huge Cycas Revoluta Shown by Mr. and Mrs. Albert
C. Burr age at the Centennial Autumn Exhibition in
Thomas Roland .70
Loring Underwood 70
Mr. Moseley's Prize Winning Porch 72
The Exhibit of Jelle Roos Which Won a Gold Medal at the
Dahlia Exhibition in 1929 90
Joseph E. Chandler
Who was elected a trustee early in 1930 to succeed the late
Massachusetts Horticultural Society
OFFICERS FOR 1930
ALBERT C. BURRAGE, of^Boston
OAKES AMES, of North Easton
EDWIN S. WEBSTER, of Boston
JOHN S. AMES, of North Easton
EDWARD I. FARRINGTON, of Weymouth
JOHN S. AMES, or North Easton
OAKES AMES, of North Easton
FRANCIS H. APPLETON, of Boston
ALBERT C. BURRAGE, or Boston
MISS MARIAN R. CASE, of Weston
HOWARD COONLEY, or Readville
MRS, S. V. R. CROSBY, or Boston
WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT, OF BOSTON
MRS. HOMER GAGE, of Worcester
G. PEABODY GARDNER, JR., of Brookline
SAMUEL J. GODDARD, of Framingham
WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Welle sley
NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, of Milton
ARTHUR LYMAN, of Boston
JAMES METHVEN, of Jamaica Plain
ROBERT G. STONE, of Brookline
MRS. BAYARD THAYER, of South Lancaster
GEORGE 0. THURLOW, of West Newbury
HENRY P. WALCOTT, of Cambridge
EDWIN S. WEBSTER, of Boston
ERNEST H. WILSON, of Jamaica Plain
FRED A. WILSON, of Nahant
Samuel J. Goddard
of Framingham, who was elected a trustee late in 1929 to succeed
the late Thomas Roland
COMMITTEES AND JUDGES FOR 1930
ALBERT C. BURRAGE, Chairman
JOHN S. AMES EDWIN S. WEBSTER
ALBERT C. BURRAGE, Chairman
JOHN S. AMES MRS. HOMER GAGE
OAKES AMES EDWIN S. WEBSTER
WALTER HUNNEWELL, Chairman
ROBERT G. STONE G. PEABODY GARDNER, JR.
Committee on Prizes
GEORGE C. THURLOW, Chairman
S. J. GODDARD ROBERT ROLAND
Committee on Exhibitions
ERNEST H. WILSON, Chairman
HOWARD COONLEY JAMES METHVEIs
HARLAN P. KELSEY GEORGE BUTTERWORTH
Committee on the Library
NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, Chairman
JOHN S. AMES MRS. BAYARD THAYER
Committee on Lectures and Publications
ERNEST H. WILSON, Chairman
HOWARD COONLEY ROBERT G. STONE
Committee on Building
FRED A. WILSON, Chairman
JOHN S. AMES ARTHUR LYMAN
Committee on Gardens
WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT, Chairman
MRS. BAYARD THAYER WALTER HUNNEWELL
MRS. F. B. CROWNINSHIELD MRS. S. V. R. CROSBY
OAKES AMES, Chairman
WILLIAM 0. ENDICOTT ERNEST H. WILSON
MRS. S. V. R. CROSBY GEORGE 0. THURLOW
Committee on Children's Gardens
MISS MARIAN ROBY CASE, Chairman
MRS. LEWIS A. ELLIOTT D. W. O'BRIEN
Who was elected a trustee at the Annual Meeting in 1929
The Influence of Certain
It is remarkably easy to become dominated with an idea
or a thing so that its importance is magnified beyond reality.
Yet it does seem that some of our economic plants have had
an effect upon politics and people, therefore upon history,
which it would be hard to exaggerate. My confirmed habit
of note taking, during a few years and during the reading
of several volumes upon varied subjects, resulted in a collec-
tion of material which appears to present the importance of
certain plants, as affecting world development. These things
will not be new to readers, nor will they be original in the
sense of being dug out of obscure sources by hard labor.
Rather call it an accident that these many scattered notes
grouped themselves to sustain the thesis that some economic
plants have affected people and events more than is gener-
Chesterton once wrote, in his ironic vein, looping together
cause and effect of many strangely dissociated things, ex-
plaining how the rutabaga turnip was the cause of high-
front houses in Chicago. His chain of circumstances wears
thin and is long. Yet one economic fact may preface the
story of some of our plants. A people can not indulge in the
so-called fine arts until there is a surplus left over from
employment in the so-called useful arts. An astronomer or
a botanist, for example, in our Plymouth Colony, in the
early 1620's, would have been frowned upon and probably
sent back to England, if he insisted on doing no other work
than his chosen profession. The means of subsistence were
too near the starvation line for any participation in the
fine arts. But whenever a people reach a position well above
the starvation line, and there is a surplus for more than
mere needs, then comes encouragement to the fine arts. It
is not, therefore, too bold to say that pepper was the cause
of the flourishing periods of artistic endeavor and triumph
in Venice, in Spain and in the Lowlands.
Spices from the Orient
The spice trade is full of romance. Spices and perfumes
*From a talk by Mr. Fred A. Wilson, a Trustee of the Massachusetts Horticul-
tural Society, at a meeting of the Horticultural Club of Boston.
14 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
were the chief commodities brought from the vague Orient
to the Mediterranean basin over a long period. They were
of great value and were prized on that account. If you stop
and listen you can still hear the creaking of the camel trains.
As in all ages the things that cost are sought, which is evi-
dence of the continuing worship of that great God I-Can-
Afford. Keeping up with Lizzie has been a feature of all
ages. The book of that title, by the way, which originated
the slang phrase, should be read by everyone annually. On
a great sacred occasion gold and frankincense and myrrh
were the costly gifts, selected with care, and thought worthy
Few white men went far east from the Mediterranean.
Great caravans brought these spices over the desert wastes,
camel trains tinkling in the dust. The Arabians discouraged
travel in their direction and told tall tales of trouble, even
of giants and ogres. Finally Marco Polo and a group with
him went into Indo-China late in the thirteenth century, but
they did not open up many trade routes. The Arabians held
this country by fair means and foul, and were the great
middlemen, purchasing in the terrible unknown Far East
and selling in the West. It is the harder to realize the im-
portance of this spice trade because spices today are cheap
and common. Their importance may be appreciated when
one considers the loss to food flavors if all spices were gone.
This was much more important centuries ago, when food
was in far less variety.
In the Middle Ages a pound of ginger would buy a sheep,
and a pound of cloves was seven times as valuable. Two
pounds of mace were worth a cow. As for pepper, when
Alaric captured Rome he demanded as tribute 5,000 pounds
of gold, 2,000 pounds of silver and 2,000 pounds of pepper.
In England rent was sometimes paid in pepper. With the
limited diet of the times these seasonings were especially
welcomed. They were also thought to have some preserva-
tive value, and at least they killed the odors of "strong"
meat. It is said that the origin of incense, made from spices,
lies in odors, back in the days when cleanliness was not
the second greatest virtue, and people herded closely in
INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC PLANTS 15
Today there are more varieties of spices in the trade. The
old Romans knew pepper, cardamom, tumeric, cassia and
ginger, all of which Persia brought from India. Cloves, nut-
meg and mace grew in the Spice Islands, and no trader went
that far in the old Roman days. Then came the Dark Ages,
and when light returned it was the Arabs who had the India
trade, centered around Damascus. They sold out to the
Venetians, and Venice ruled the Mediterranean. The list
was increased, for the Arabs had gone to the Spice Islands
and in Ceylon had found cinnamon. The spices of Araby are
famous in song and story, but the Arabs never grew them.
The great rain forests of the Far East furnish the best
seasonings. The Arabian wild tales and vague descriptions,
intended to prevent interference with their traffic, were long
effective, and for the white people there was no Far East.
Venice was Queen of the Mediterranean, then the great
sea of the world, and from the surplus due to her prosperity
arose a great period of art. To mention Crivelli, Giorgione,
Titian, Piombo and Tintoretto, is to name only a few of her
The spice trade story shifts now to Prince Henry of Por-
tugal, called Henry the Navigator, about whom "Winwood
Reade tells entertainingly in "The Martyrdom of Man." He
went across the straits of Gibraltar and on the African side
set up an observatory and a court of scientists. He sent out
many expeditions, creeping farther and farther down the
African West Coast. Columbus was among the daring sailors
who thus ventured into the unknown. Many of them were
delayed at the Gold Coast, and brought back cargoes of
money value without extending scientific exploration. Fi-
nally in 1497 da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope and
Soon Portuguese ship traders were in every port on the
Malabar Coast. They were after spices and they carried
home only spices — pepper, ginger, cinnamon and cardamom.
They finally seized the island of Ceylon, which was full of
cinnamon forests, and created a cinnamon monopoly. In
pepper also they were at the top. Then they seized Goa, a
stronghold of spice export, and built a warehouse and fort-
ress. Here once lived two men of fame : the preacher St.
16 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTUEAL SOCIETY
Francis Xavier, and the great poet Camoens, who was exiled
from Portugal, the author of the "Lusiad."
Portugal was mistress of the seas, successor to Venice as
the maritime capital of Europe. Venice was toppled over
because land trade routes were abandoned for these water
routes. The Portuguese East India Company was wealthy
and made exorbitant profits. Portugal's policy of excluding
other nations, her terrible inquisition at Goa, and the grafting
of her officials, made her overseas empire fail. In 1581 her
crown united with Spain. Spain thought it easier to plunder
Aztecs and Incas of ingot sand rubies, and cared nothing
for the commercial ways that Portugal had followed.
The downfall of the Portuguese East India Company was
inevitable, and it was followed by the rise of the Dutch East
India Company. The Dutch followed the Portuguese and
took their strongholds. In 1623 they captured an English
spice factory at Macassar and slaughtered all hands. Crom-
well later made them pay indemnity, but it was cheap at any
price, for it left Holland master in the East. The Dutch East
India Company was the foremost business corporation of the
times. They paid enormous dividends and Holland became
Here again it is illuminating to observe the influence of
trade upon the development of the fine arts. Spain and
Portugal had El Greco and Velasquez. In the period follow-
ing the commercial supremacy of the Low Countries came
artists like Rembrandt, Franz Hals, Rubens, Teniers and
Van Dyck. If we continue to the time of English domination
we find Hogarth, Reynolds, Romney and Gainsborough com-
ing into prominence.
In the seventeenth century, during Dutch supremacy, the
shipping of Holland was three-quarters of the world's total.
But the end was coming. Pirates out of China and the
islands hurt greatly. Cloves and nutmeg went over to Africa
in 1770, and later to the West Indies. The British took other
things into the East Indies. The spice trade was broken as
a monopoly. The Dutch East India Company, which had
paid as high as forty per cent dividends, failed at fifty
millions of dollars, and had been for years only a ghost.
England became the successor to the others in the East,
INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC PLANTS 17
but not because of the spice trade, for that could not remain
cornered and monopolized. Today competition is keen, mar-
kets are full and prices are low. It is still an important
business, largely handled by the Dutch, but it is no longer
America, in its days of shipping, had a share in this
oriental trade. Between 1800 and 1860 scores of vessels
sailed long distances, around Cape Horn, across to Canton
and India. Great fortunes were made. A triangular route
out of Boston, which included the Columbia River in Oregon,
was called the Boston-Columbia-China route. Many of the
stately old houses now seen in New England coast towns,
were built with money wrested from a sea full of pirates
and typhoons in pursuit of a forgotten but romantic spice
trade. Read Morrison's "Maritime History of Massachusetts"
and get the flavor of it.
The Power of Plants
"With this introductory example in mind consider the
general subject a moment. It is pointed out in Peattie's
"Cargoes and Harvests" that in the mastery of nature's
various secrets too much may be attributed to the muscle
and brain of man, forgetting our absolute dependence upon
natural factors. The sun is the source of all the possibilities
of life and living. Yet We depend upon chlorophyll, without
realizing how much it contributes to our existence. This
coloring matter, which is in most plants, has been called the
green blood of the world. It is a factory, working smoothly
and noiselessly, and making over the inert elements of earth
and water into sugars, starches and other hydro-carbon
necessities, such as wood and rubber. From plant products
come half the business of the world. Many living things
feed on plants, or on creatures that do so. The chain of
dependence is quite direct.
Fertile land is a treasure which in all history has furnished
the basis for power and all higher civilization. India's na-
tives have never held world leadership but her conquerors
have. The last conqueror is England and the spice trade
took her there, and she stays there because of the wealth
obtainable from the fields and forests.
18 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
The power of plant life lies first in the native vegetation.
Then it is increased by agriculture and the introduction of
new species adds to it. Investigation finds new uses for
plants, and a new list of plants for economic uses. The weed
of one day has been a plant the whole world wanted the
next day. During the war we used peach pits for gas masks
— a new use for a formerly worthless part of a plant. Sugar
was probably once supplied by honey. Then came the Arabs
with sugar from the East. Here was a new demand — and one
that is yet increasing. But all the while Europeans were
growing beets, and soon two chemists found a new use for
an old plant. Many countries unable to grow sugar cane
may be sugar producers. Here is more plant power. A marsh
grass in England is used for paper; Arctic lichens become
dye-plants. As the human race settles down to a program
of economy, instead of waste, new lands and new plants
will be exploited and more plant power will be utilized.
Holland is a good example of the use of plant resources.
It has no good drainage, no forests or important native wild
plants, and the climate is not the most favorable. Yet Dutch-
men are the gardeners of Europe. Spreading to the East
Indies, they are the leaders in growing tea, coffee, rice,
sugar cane, spices and drugs. Holland has a firm grip on
plant power. Many nations have wasted their plant re-
sources. The United States has just stopped short of it and
begun to save our forests, rotate our crops and introduce
In the ancient world grain was the key to plant power.
Italy and Greece were not self-supporting, and when the
Spartans cut bread lines by intercepting the fleet that plied
from Thrace, they were the victors. The power that lies in
wheat will be held by nations with large areas and deep
soils. Today it is Russia, the Argentine, Canada and the
United States. But they have not and may not always have
it. Soil gets wheat-sick, as happened in Italy.
Foodstuffs may always be prominent in plant power con-
siderations but other plant industries have had remarkable
histories. In the sixteenth century the spice trade was the
most profitable ocean-carried commerce in the world. The
spice trader saw permanence in it ; but today tea, coffee and
INFLUENCE OP ECONOMIC PLANTS 19
tobacco use a large part of the money invested in agricul-
ture. Nations have, tried to keep the profits of certain plant
trades, but in the long run this can not be done. Today the
Dutch seem to control quinine, and the Japanese camphor;
but any policy of exclusion does not seem to give promise
of long life or best results.
The Cure for Malaria
It was down in Peru that the Countess of Chinchon lay
ill of malaria. A local nearby worthy sent her doctor a
parcel of red bark with instructions how to use it, and
behold, she was cured. It was the first known cure for
malaria, a very dreaded disease. Some of this bark was
carried back to Spain by the Countess and her husband and
her doctor. Soon the Jesuits heard of it and spread it around
the earth so that it was called Jesuits' bark. Malaria is
caused by a variety of mosquito which is not the common
one that pesters us. It was an unchecked disease. Even
empires may have been wasted by it, and the onward thrust
of armies halted. There are various tales of how this cure for
malaria first came to be used, but nothing is certain about it.
For a while the Protestants, of course, would not use the
bark because the Jesuits believed in it. But it came into its
own as a grand medicine. The Count of Chinchon went back
to the Andes to get more and soon the pillage of the chin-
chona forests began. Trees were cut much faster than they
could grow, and wasteful methods of collecting the bark
were common. Chinchona plants were brought to Europe,
but only as curiosities. In 1846 one was raised from seed in
Paris. The French started a small plantation in Algeria, but
without success. The Dutch found the right climate in
Java. They had great difficulty in getting stocks, for South
America did not propose to see her quinine trade split up
or drifting away. After danger and hardship a stock was
rushed to Java. Today the Dutch have about 25,000 acres
of it growing there under plantation conditions. Lady Can-
ning, wife of a viceroy of India, wanted quinine cultivation
established in India. Richard Spruce was sent to South
America for stocks. After well nigh intolerable hardships
and dangers he finally brought them out. In India the tree
20 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
did not do well on the ground selected. More plants were
obtained from Java and were set out in Ceylon with mod-
erate success. India grows most of the quinine it uses but
the Dutch are the great world growers of chinchona. Am-
sterdam is the chinchona bark market of the world.
The Question of Camphor
Camphor is another great crop, for it is an element of
celluloid, and celluloid, when combined with nitric acid,
produces high explosives. Nothing now known will take its
place. There are various camphors but the best one of all is
a great evergreen tree which is native to Formosa, southern
China and perhaps the south end of the Japanese islands.
The oil comes from any part of the tree, but mostly from
the base and roots, and least from the leaves. It is distilled
from chips. Marco Polo saw camphor as a rare commodity,
but not its modern economic value. It was in 1620 that the
Dutch accidentally went to Formosa, and soon the camphor,
tea, silk, rice and sugar attracted them. Then in 1650, or
later, the Chinese drove out the Dutch. In 1855, concessions
were granted to Americans, and an American flag flew over
a compound in Formosa. The Civil War interfered with our
trade and England stepped in to replace America. Then
came the Japanese, after 1895, and their plan was to regu-
late the output so that prices would stay high. This made
other nations try to grow camphor, and enough was done to
discourage this monopolistic policy of Japan. In the World
War Germany produced synthetic camphor, and Japan grew
the vegetable camphor. In 1916 Japan harvested ten million
pounds and in 1917 the United States bought six million
No one seems to know what will happen to camphor. Will
synthetic camphor succeed commercially? Meaning will its
cost get down to where it will replace the vegetable product?
Will camphor oil be made artificially? Will the United States
and other places produce a plant supply by improved planta-
tion methods? The plantation plan is to cut branches only
and not the whole trees ; the trees live on to grace another
day and yield another crop.
INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC PLANTS 21
Importance of the Potato
Now consider the humble potato. From 1909 to 1913 this
vegetable seems to have led the world's food crops with a
production of about fiYe and one-half million bushels a year.
The food value is of course surpassed by the great cereals,
but among the white races the bulk consumed is second only
to wheat. It is also used to make starch, dextrin, sago, indus-
trial alcohol, fusel oil, and several other lesser products. It
seems to be the Jack-of-all-trades of the plant world.
It is called the Irish potato but is Irish only because it
was enthusiastically adopted there. It is a native of South
America and was described by several early travelers to
that continent. In Peru the two principal foods were quinoa
and potato. There are several myths about its introduction
into Europe. One says Raleigh brought it from Virginia, but
Raleigh never was in Virginia, and the potato did not grow
there. There is a statue to Drake, in a German city, holding
a potato in his hand; but although he did see it in Chile,
there is no record of his bringing it from there. Usually
the story goes that the introducers sent it to his estate near
Cork. In another story a wreck strewed the shore near Lan-
cashire, thus introducing it to England. Falstaff speaks of
potatoes, but Shakespeare wrote only of the sweet potato,
which was known in England before the white. The potato
had a hard fight for popular acceptance. A Scotch minister
denounced it because it was not mentioned in the Bible, and
was not therefore a fit food for Christians. Every conceivable
disease was attributed to it, as was the case with its cousin
the tomato. In 1744 Frederick the Great compelled the
peasants to plant it in the dark of the moon and to dig it
at Michaelmas. From the Germans, Dr. Parmentier intro-
duced it to France. He was ridiculed but finally interested
Louis the Sixteenth, and Marie Antoinette appeared at a ball
with a wreath of potato blossoms in her hair. The king gave
Parmentier a plot of ground for growing potatoes. Together
they played a trick on the common people. A squad of
soldiers guarded the plot, and immediately the contents
were thought of value. People stole them whenever chance
offered, and opportunities were left carefully open for them.
Potatoes were brought to the colonies in America from Eng-
22 MASSACHUSETTS HORTI CULTURAL SOCIETY
land, but the earliest record of it here is 1751 in Rockingham
County, New Hampshire. Today the crop has spread all over
the United States. By the middle of the seventeenth century
it was common in England and the British Isles, and thou-
sands who were paupers were made self-supporting by it.
The population of Ireland, a poor country for growing
cereals, increased from two million in 1785 to five million
in eighteen years, and by 1845 it had passed eight million.
Then came the crash. There were warnings of potato dis-
eases, but no attention was paid to them. In 1839 black rust
hit New England, and in 1841 stem rot hit Germany. But
the over-crowding population of Ireland continued to de-
pend on potatoes. Potatoes give a larger amount of food
per acre than any other crop, and a population depending
on them can be crowded most densely if the crop goes well.
For people living on grains and meat, more acreage-using
crops, potatoes are a margin, but the Irish were living on
potatoes — the cheapest possible food. The total crop failure
in 1845 resulted in the death, of a large number, which is
never placed at less than three hundred thousand and some-
times set at twice that.
The exodus of the Irish to America — a tidal wave of im-
migration began. Anyone who could buy a steerage ticket
saved himself and his wife and children by flight. Then
came typhus epidemics aboard ship, and the taking over of
Castle Garden at the port of New York as an immigrant
station. To stop this sea of immigration societies were
formed here, and one of the largest had its members answer
all questions about the society by "I don't know." It became
known as the Know Nothing Party, and actually ran a
candidate for President.
Active work in breeding and selecting the potato began
about 1850 and many names are associated with it. Today
Europe produces ninety per cent of the world's crop, North
America eight per cent and two per cent is divided among
other continents. Naturally it is an important product. One
cannot draw too strong an inference, but it is also an im-
portant crop in Germany, and in 1914 experts said in June
there would be a bumper crop, and in July German troops
were on the march.
INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC PLANTS 23
Just now there are frenzied efforts to find the original
wild potato, to get strength and immunity in new hybrids.
The trouble seems to be in knowing whether potatoes grow-
ing wild are really native or escapes. Shortly after this Irish
peopling of America came the building of great transcon-
tinental railroads. Usually they were begun at both ends.
From the Pacific coast the labor used was largely Chinese,
or at least oriental. But from the East the labor was not
imported, and perhaps would not have been available in
adequate amounts at the time, if the Irish had not supplied
it. Therefore the tag, the potato built our great railroads.
Supremacy of Cotton
When we come to cotton the first thing we think of is
the old saying "Cotton is King." In olden times, Grecian
and Roman, people wore linen and some wool. While flax
was native in Egypt, cotton was unknown there. Later it was
introduced from Nubia. When Alexander carried his con-
quest to the eastward, he found wide flung cotton fields in
the Indies. In the Middle Ages, with great trade routes
established, with terminals at Venice or Amsterdam, cotton
goods came pouring into Europe. Flax and wool growers
and manufacturers did their best to stop its introduction
but cotton was cheaper. In America, during this time, other
species were used by the Indians. Cortez found it in Mexico
and sent presents of it back to his great emperor, Charles V.
Around the time of our Revolution cotton was introduced as
a likely crop to the United States. In the meantime invention
had given us the flying shuttle in 1738, the spinning jenney
in 1764 and the spinning frame in 1769, and later came the
steam engine and the coal mine. England's industrial revolu-
tion was on, with its suffering and over-crowding, and the
change of industry to new methods, with cotton emerging as
a victor over other textiles to overtop for a time all other
industry in the British Isles. The cottage industry of wool
died out. English money went out of the country for cotton,
instead of staying at home to pay for wool. This period saw
the greatest suffering in slums, in child labor, and in filth,
disease and over-crowding in England's industrial centers
that the world has ever seen. It is only another of many
24 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
illustrations of the slow adjustment of people ; of the human
inability to keep pace with any new development which
oversets an existing balance, a statics quo. It can be seen in
misuses and struggles with today's onward (if it is onward)
march. The gentle-minded Charles Lamb voiced it a hundred
years ago when he wrote : "There is an onward march of
science but who shall beat the drums for its retreat? How
can we ring the bells backward?"
In America flax held its own for a while, but cotton sup-
planted it in the South, and New England came to be more
and more an industrial district — using much cotton. Today
flax is grown chiefly for linseed oil. When the spinning mills
in England began to roar, negro slavery in our country was
dying out. The Civil War stopped the cotton supply and
one-half the spindles of England were idle, which brought
misery to the densest industrial population of Europe. Natu-
rally they wanted cotton, and Slidell and others floated a
cotton loan that was used to build privateers in Liverpool.
The loan was over -subscribed and even after Gettysburg
the bonds continued to sell. But at the end of the war the
Southerners burned their cotton so it would not fall into
the hands of the North. The Federal Government did not
assume the Confederate debts and these foreign investors
were ruined. England sought cotton elsewhere and thirty
nations sent samples to an exhibition in London. Ten years
later almost none of them could show any cotton production.
The South recovered its cotton supremacy quickly and today
produces over three-fifths of the world's supply.
The Problem of Opium
We come now to opium, with its peculiar history. Today
there is more land than ever before growing poppy, and
there are more addicts of opium — dope fiends. For centuries
opium was no such menace. A very mild form was used, as
mild as some of our recent soothing syrups given to children.
The Greeks make no mention of the abuse of opium. But
when it reached the Orient troubles began. From the palace
to the hovel it was used, first as a medicine to relieve malaria,
dysentery and cholera, and later as a nerve-benumbing nar-
cotic. Doses increase, and moral and physical prostration
INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC PLANTS 25
follow. In India there was great trouble and from there
the Portuguese started opium toward the West. After the
Portuguese came the Dutch, and after them the English. The
English East India Company acquired this opium trade and
established a monopoly on it in 1797, at the same time con-
trolling a dangerous fluctuation in prices. Finally a form of
government control was instituted. By law no growers could
sell, except to the government, but they sold their surplus at
auction and were not concerned with its destination.
When the English came into control in India, a thriving
business in opium was already going on with China. It was
first used to chew or eat. The introduction of tobacco gave
the idea of smoking it, which became the popular way in
the East. As early as 1620 the morphine habit had a hold
on south China, in the form of opium smoking. The habit
spread for a hundred years. Then came a ruler who pro-
hibited with death the smoking of the poppy, and seventy
years later the importation was forbidden. But it was one of
the few products which the ships of the British East India
Company could carry profitably from Calcutta to Hongkong.
They were indignant and the Indian government, which had
revenues from the trade, complained that they could not
carry on their administration if the opium export was cur-
tailed. British trading ships anchored off the coast and
waited for Cantonese traders to come out to them. Here was
smuggling similar to our own present troubles with bootleg
liquor. The emperor of China asked the British to withdraw
the vessels, and issued an edict in 1839 threatening violence
to the opium ships. Sixteen thousand chests were imported
into China in a year, and nothing could alter these figures.
As the smuggling continued officers entered the British com-
pound at Canton and seized chests of opium, and burned
them. Here came a clamor for war, with ten million dollars
worth of opium destroyed. This is called the first opium war.
Now one side said the British were breaking the laws, and
knew it but did nothing to rectify the matter. The other
side said the Chinese violated the British flag and burned
British property. Long arguments resulted from this. One
side said the Chinese might have increased the opium import
taxes year by year, but the other side said to what end
26 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
except to increase the smuggling. One side said China was
already growing plenty of opium and the other side said it
was only a small part of what was used and would have
been stopped or regulated. Anyhow, might won, though the
right is interesting. By the treaty of Nanking, China was
forced to open five treaty ports to British trade and cede to
Britain the island of Hongkong. Ever since, Hongkong has
been Britain's chief strategic and naval center in Chinese
waters. The opium question was not mentioned in this treaty
and the British approached the emperor about it. The em-
peror was wrestling with the problem of opium culture
within China. Acres needed to grow food were given over to
a crop that only meant trouble. Smuggling from India was
worse than ever. He replied that although his people seemed
bent on their own destruction he did not mean to hasten it
by legalizing the traffic. Then came a list of grievances from
France and Great Britain. Many of them were real, for
Chinese officials were a poor lot. When the Chinese stopped
a ship flying British colors and removed three Chinamen
from it, the second opium war began. It ended in the treaty
of Tientsin, by which the importation of opium was legalized.
Besides this, England, France, Russia and the United
States obtained certain other rights. Resistance was gone ;
opium was grown widely and imported. One saying is that
nine out of ten persons in China use it. Commissions have
been appointed to undo the work of the opium wars. In 1906
Lord Morley said, "I do not wish to disparage the Com-
mission, but somehow or other its findings have failed to
satisfy public opinion in Great Britain and ease the con-
sciences of those who have taken up the matter." Then, in
good faith, India and China agreed on means to suppress
the traffic. India was to reduce the amount sent to China by
one-tenth annually, and in ten years none would be im-
ported by China. China agreed to stop the cultivation within
her borders. This meant a drop in revenue by India but she
undertook it without complaint. Famine in China is more of
a menace now, while strong government has been replaced
by weakness, and opium culture has increased. It is a far
more profitable crop than foodstuffs, and a people with
INFLUENCE OP ECONOMIC PLANTS 27
money enough to buy food can, as a consequence, starve to
death. The acreage is needed for food.
Today all countries have their problems with opium and
great quantities from the East are seeking markets, where
it will poison, stupefy, degrade and kill, in every land on
earth. Turkey, Persia, India and China grow opium without
restriction. At the International Opium Convention at The
Hague in 1914, only five nations would sign the protocol.
The recent conference at Geneva followed suit. India and
the Dutch East Indies could not see the greater welfare
of all humanity. Only China and the United States took a
clear cut stand and withdrew from the conference, to the
sentiments of which they could not consent, nor honor it by
What seem to be needed apparently are officially super-
vised farms to grow opium for medicinal purposes. They
would use no great area compared to the lands now used for
its cultivation. Of course at all conferences great stress is
laid on its use as a medicine and attempts are made to prove
that most opium is so used. The figures have been taken,
however, and the facts are known to be otherwise. Today
cities like Singapore get half their revenue from opium. It
is a terrible story, the story of opium, and sooner or later
its cultivation will be severely restricted.
The Story of Rubber
We come now to the story of rubber. It is said that the
first white man to see it was Columbus, in Haiti. Neither
golf nor tennis then existed. But today rubber is used in
more ways than any other substance, perhaps excepting
steel. Even a century ago it was held in slight regard, until
quite accidentally it was found that sulphur made it avail-
able as an elastic substance of varying hardness rather than
a sticky mass of gum which is much affected by changes in
temperature. A very early use of it immortalized the name
of Mackintosh, who made a waterproof fabric of two layers
of cloth with a layer of rubber between. This was in 1823.
A generation earlier a piece was sent to Priestley, the dis-
coverer of oxygen, who was mobbed out of Manchester in
England and came over to Pennsylvania. He cut it up and
28 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
gave it to his friends to use for erasures; hence its name,
India rubber, which has persisted.
There are many plants that yield rubber, over 200 in all,
including almost all of those that have a milky sap. Asia,
Africa and the Amazon are the world's three sources of
rubber. Africa has the blackest past and most unpromising
future, for here the great wild trees of the hot tropical rain
forests were slaughtered so that yields decreased rapidly
after a few years. In six months of 1895 British rubber ex-
ports from Lagos increased twenty-five fold, and in two
years had decreased a third. This is West Africa. In Central
Africa, the Congo region, a worse story is unfolded, for here
King Leopold of Belgium set up a great money making
conspiracy, which squeezed out the lives of both men and
trees. Here villages were shot up or beaten up when the
allotted quantity of rubber was not brought from trips.
Women and children were taken as hostages, to be bought
back by men with "black milk and white bone," rubber and
elephant tusks. Hands were cut off, women chained in files
were used as porters, carrying sixty pounds apiece on long
hard trails. It was found that cannibals were among those
hired to keep order, and they were sometimes paid in tender
women and children. The Congo atrocities are now thirty
years ago, long enough to be forgotten. Eubber was the
cause of the wealth and splendor of Leopold's palace in
Brussels and of his splendid gifts to churches. One writer
has said that if plants grow in Hell, rubber will be the king
of them. For a long time rubber hushed every scandal, but
finally the story leaked out and the morals of the world
were so startled that changes came. In 1903 Morel's report
appeared and was denied by the money makers as belonging
wholly to happenings of long ago. But in 1909 the Belgian
Parliament denounced the king's influence in the Congo.
For reasons of poorer quality, greater adulterating and im-
proper tapping, African rubber has been found inferior to
Para rubber. It is said that Africa can not keep step with
Brazil and southeastern Asia.
Brazil has a rain forest vaster than that of equatorial
Africa, and here the greatest rubber exploitation of the
INFLUENCE OP ECONOMIC PLANTS 29
world has come about within a handful of years. It has
transformed the valley of the Amazon into a hive of indus-
try. First slavery was used in its collecting, but this is super-
seded by a wage system, and an ignorant class of toilers,
each of whom has an allotment. They gash the trees with a
rather blunt instrument which mashes the fibres at the cut,
and consequently the list of diseases to which Brazilian
rubber trees are subject is growing rapidly, as might be
expected in the hot damp jungle. This Brazil region is the
world's greatest reserve of wild rubber, but the problems of
food, labor, disease and competition are troublesome. More-
over, any dependence on a yield from wild growth is natu-
rally menaced by a diminishing supply.
There is a different picture of rubber growing in south-
eastern Asia. Here the wild crop failed and the best varieties
were sought and introduced under plantation conditions.
The railroad journey from Singapore around into India is
now much less interesting than formerly because of the
monotony of hundreds of miles of rubber orchards. This
seemed a desperate venture, as long as wild rubber any-
where was a sufficient supply. As early as 1875 this planta-
tion rubber growing was started, perhaps first in any exten-
sive way in Ceylon, where the coffee industry had failed
because of a fungus disease. It was found that Para rubber
grew well there, and this is now the chief variety used in
Ceylon, Bengal, the Malay Peninsula, French Indo-China,
Java and Sumatra. The workers are well paid and intelli-
gent. Trees are tapped regularly and allowed to grow un-
touched two years in every three. Yet the Brazil rubber is
called the best, for various reasons, one of which is the
mechanical method of curing, but none of which seems as
good as the probable geographical variation in climate and
During the war the Germans made strenuous efforts to
produce synthetic rubber. Most of it was poor, and the best
required acetone, made easiest from acetate of calcium
which was obtained almost wholly from America. Then the
Germans found a bacteria in rotten potatoes which would
convert alcohol into acetone. But synthetic rubber is now
30 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
too expensive and was never on the market, though the
Germans still claim they have solved the problem. Rubber
in America seems to be coming from guayule, if at all. This
is a shrub which grows in desert areas, and thus it uses land
that is not much good for anything else just now.
Rubber is in the position of most crops centuries ago : the
planted product has not driven out the wild; it fluctuates
violently in price and quality; it is subject to booms and
panics ; and it is hardly out of a stage of slavery and waste.
But sooner or later rubber will be more nearly a plantation
product, perhaps grown in temperate zones in the form of
some of the milkweeds we now know. Rubber consumption
seems likely to increase by further great strides, and if so
it will almost reach the top among the plant powers of indus-
try and history. Edward E. Slosson tells the story of the
race for rubber in his book entitled "Creative Chemistry."
The Use of Tobacco
Columbus was perhaps the first white man to see tobacco,
although he did nothing toward introducing it into Europe.
At the time of the discovery corn and tobacco were the
crops most widely grown by the Indians, both in North and
South America. For the Indians tobacco was a form of
reverence with its smoke analogous to incense. When the
white man smoked he adopted an art and did not develop
one. In 1565 Admiral Sir John Hawkins brought tobacco
from the West Indies to Europe, but only in 1753 did Sir
Francis Drake show samples of our modern tobacco, and
smoking began in earnest.
Strangely enough the use of tobacco was taken up in the
oriental countries faster than in the European. One might
almost suppose the habit originated there. Pipes were made
of gold, ivory, jade and other precious substances, and were
elaborately carved and decorated. Pipe smoking took hold in
England with the form, commonest today, of the simple and
useful pipe. In France the pipe was for long considered
loathsome and snuff was the only gentlemanly use of to-
bacco. The pipe appealed at once to the Dutchman, and to
the Teutonic peoples. The great botanist, Linnaeus, who
INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC PLANTS 31
gave tobacco its name, Nicotiana tabacum, was an inveterate
The Indians did not chew tobacco. This habit seems to
have made its start because it was considered a prophy-
lactic, and used as such during the Great Plague in 1665 in
London. Read Pepys' diary for June 7, 1665, where he tells
of being forced to buy some roll tobacco to chew. Boys in
school, at that time, were instructed to chew it and were
thrashed if they did not. The plague, it was supposed, never
touched a tobacconist or his shop. There was a recurrence
of this superstition in 1918 in the influenza epidemic, when
a doctor's advice frequently was to smoke and to ride in
smoking cars. With this start chewing became fashionable
in England, and continued, with the modern results that we
Snuff was considered a cure for headaches and colds.
Snuff-taking was a fine art and marked the gentleman in
the degree of elegance with which it could be done, while
snuff boxes were elaborate in material and decoration.
England was divided in her use of tobacco. But it was the
chief support of her middle American Colonies and was the
foundation of the Jamestown Colony. These people came
over intending to raise silk and wine grapes, crops unsuited
to climatic conditions; and when about ready to abandon
America, they began to grow tobacco and found they had a
market for it. Virginia tobacco reached England at a time
of great demand. The tobacco leaf produced the culture that
gave us Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Munroe, Marshall
and Harry Lee.
Tobacco is a soil-exhausting crop, so that a great acreage
was used in its cultivation and a large part lay idle in a
fallowing process. This meant self-sufficient communities on
each holding, with the next plantation center many miles
away. They used slave labor. Ships direct from London landed
at the tobacco baron's own private wharf on some Virginia
river. Then came the Revolution, and following that Eng-
land blockaded Europe more or less during the Napoleonic
wars. When all was over American tobacco was fairly well
established over in Kentucky. Tobacco killed the tidewater
32 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
soil. An old diarist has said that slavery killed the free
white laborers and small farmers, malaria killed the great
planters and their families, and tobacco killed the soil.
Leaving aside, or for other discussion, the injury of
tobacco, it would seem, if man must have some solace, that
the gentle brown leaf is far better than its rivals: betel,
hashish, opium and coca. The sun that has looked down
upon so many a scene of depravity, stupefication and ugli-
ness, beholds today the triumph of tobacco ; and, as it sets
around the world, it sees a continuous trail of smoke from
the millions of mankind who are lighting up their evening
These are a few sips at a draught which is flavor to an
interesting subject. Read only the books herein named and
you will imbibe the whole.
"Then the clouds past,
Swallows soaring between,
The Spring is alive
The meadows are green.
"I jump up like mad,
Break the old pipe in twain,
And away to the meadows
The meadows again."
These lines are quoted for contrast, and to give the most
vivid impression the writer gets from thinking over this
subject, to which many more momentous vistas might be
opened. These words from Fitzgerald's "Meadows in Spring"
open one's mind to the pleasures of Nature and to the beauty
that lies around for all to see and use. Yet the conspicuous
factor is over-use, as far as commerce and industry are
involved. Strife and war, pestilence, oppression and misery,
these appear the chief components of the exploitation of
many of these gifts of Nature. But really it is an inability
to keep the pace which is set by new developments. This is
also true in scientific advance, as today men labor, while
they pray that harmonization may come quickly so that man
may rule things and not things rule men.
Medals and Certificates for 1929
Goorge Robert White Medal of Honor
Miss Gertrude Jekyll of Godalming, England, as a writer
on horticultural subjects
Thomas Roland Medal
Frank R. Pierson, for his skill in horticulture
Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal
Charles Sander, for work done in hybridizing woody plants
Albert C. Burrage Educational Cup
Mrs. A. Sherman Hoyt, for desert garden and Redwood
President's Gold Cup
Thomas Roland, for group of Acacias
Massachusetts Horticultural Society Gold Cup
Mr. and Mrs. Albert C. Burrage, for tropical garden
Mrs. Bayard Thayer Cup
Mrs. C. S. Houghton and Mrs. E. B. Dane, for rock garden
Governor John Endecott Cup
Mrs. Lester Leland, for garden of 100 years ago
North Shore Garden Club Cup
Massachusetts Department of Conservation, for educa-
Mrs. Geoffrey G. Whitney Cup
Joseph Breck & Son, for bulb garden
Mrs. Homer Gage Cup
William H. Vanderbilt, for garden of Lilies
Philip Dexter Cup
Mrs. Homer Gage, for rock garden
John S. Ames Cup
Mrs. Robert Morse, for group of Indian Azaleas
Walter Hunnewell Cup
John S. Ames, for group of Kurume Azaleas
Charles A. Stone Cup
Howard Coonley, for group of forced plants
MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES FOR 1929 35
William Caleb Loring Cup
Walter Hunnewell, for group of Rhododendrons and
Mrs. R. M. Saltonstall Cup
Mrs. Bayard Thayer, for group of flowering plants
Howard Coonley Cup
F. R. Pierson, for collection of Ferns
Oakes Ames Silver Cup
Thomas Roland, for group of Orchids
George C. Thurlow Cup
Robert Laurie & Son, for rock garden
Edwin S. Webster Cup
John Mutch, for hybrid Orchids
Mrs. Gardiner M. Lane Cup
Beacon Hill Garden Club, for city garden
Mrs. John Coolidge Cup
Mrs. J. H. Lancashire, for Lily and Tulip garden
Mrs. J. Montgomery Sears Cup
Mrs. Albert C. Burrage, for foliage and flowering plants
American Association of Nurserymen Cup
Wyman's Framingham Nurseries, for group of hardy
New England Nurserymen's Association Cup
Harlan P. Kelsey, for group of hardy woody plants
Massachusetts Nurserymen's Association Cup
Weston Nurseries, for group of hardy woody plants
Marian Roby Case Cup
Cherry Hill Nurseries, for group of hardy woody plants
Nanna Matthews Bryant Cup
Eric H. Wetterlow, for Erica darleyensis
Jere A. Downs Cup
Noanett Garden Club
36 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Harlan P. Kelsey Cup
Chestnut Hill Garden Club
Centennial Gold Cup
Mr. and Mrs. Albert C. Burrage, for group of stove and
greenhouse flowering and foliage plants
Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby Cup
Mrs. Albert C. Burrage, for group of Anthuriums
Mr. and Mrs. Dudley Pickman Cup
Mrs. Albert C. Burrage, for group of Clerodendron Bal-
Mrs. Moses Taylor, for display of Roses
Mrs. Bayard Thayer, for display of Campanula pyrami-
dalis, Lilies and other plants
Mrs. Moses Taylor, for collection of vegetables
Mrs. Galen L. Stone, for Winter-flowering Begonias
Medals Presented by Other Societies for Distribution at
Massachusetts Horticultural Society Shows
Garden Club of America Gold Medal
Harlan P. Kelsey, for the rare beauty and spiritual
quality of his exhibit
Chestnut Hill Garden Club Gold Medal
Edwin S. Webster, for group of greenhouse plants
Pennsylvania Horticultural Society Gold Medal
Mrs. A. Sherman Hoyt, for desert garden and Redwood
Horticultural Society of New York Gold Medal
Thomas Roland, for group of Acacias
Society of American Florists' Gold Medal
Butterworth's, for group of Orchids
American Orchid Society Large Gold Medal
Edwin S. Webster, for collection of Orchids
American Orchid Society Exhibition Gold Medal
F. W. Hunnewell, for group of Orchids
MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES FOR 1929 37
American Orchid Society Large Silver Medal
Albert C. Burrage, for Odontoglossum McNabianum
American Orchid Society Exhibition Silver Medal
Henry Eaton, for superior culture of Cymbidiums
American Rose Society Gold Medal
The Montgomery Rose Co., for Rose Talisman
American Rose Society Silver Medal
Lyman P. Coddington, for Rose President Hoover
American Peony Society Silver Medal
Cherry Hill Nurseries, sweepstake prize
Centennial Gold Medals
Albert C. Burrage
Mrs. A. Sherman Hoyt, for desert garden and Redwood
Mr. and Mrs. Albert C. Burrage, for tropical garden
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Curtis James for display of tropical
Mrs. Homer Gage, for bulb garden
Mrs. C. S. Houghton and Mrs. E. B. Dane, for a rock
Thomas Roland, for group of Acacias
Bay State Nurseries, for best exhibit by a nurseryman
Milton Garden Club, for best exhibit by a garden club
Edwin S. Webster, for group of flowering plants
Albert C. Burrage, for group of Orchids
Cherry Hill Nurseries, for display of Peonies
Mrs. Bayard Thayer, for display of Campanula pyrami-
dalis, Lilies and other plants
Mrs. Galen L. Stone, for Winter-flowering Begonias
Mr. and Mrs. Albert C. Burrage, for display of tropical
Dr. Walter G. Kendall, for eminent service in pomology
T. A. Havemeyer, for distinguished service to horticulture
F. R. Newbold, for distinguished service to horticulture
John C. Wister, for distinguished service to horticulture
Worcester Horticultural Society, for distinguished service
Henry P. Walcott, for distinguished service to horticulture
Nathaniel T. Kidder, for distinguished service to horti-
MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES FOR 1929 39
General Francis H. Appleton, for distinguished service to
William C. Endicott, for distinguished service to horti-
Professor Oakes Ames, for distinguished service in
Ernest H. Wilson, for his inspirational books
Olmsted Brothers, for distinguished service in landscape
Harlan P. Kelsey, for his work in behalf of better horti-
Alexander Montgomery, for originating new Roses
Mrs. Susan D. McKelvey, for her monograph on the Lilac
Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, for the conservation of wild flowers
Miss Marian Roby Case, for her educational work
Kidder, Peabody & Co., for example set by a city garden
William Filene's Sons Company, for example set by
Professor B. L. Robinson, for his eminent service to
Centennial Silver Medal
Boston Society of Landscape Architects, for garden
representing their work
Mrs. Robert C. Morse, for group of Indian Azaleas
John S. Ames, for artistic arrangement of Kurume Azaleas
Walter Hunnewell, for group of Rhododendrons and
Mrs. R. M. Saltonstall, for group of blue Cinerarias
Howard Coonley, for group of flowering plants
Arthur Lyman, for Camellia japonica
Harry Seaton Rand, for collection of Geraniums
Albert C. Burrage, for model of rotating greenhouse
Arnold Arboretum, for educational exhibit
Cambridge Plant Club, for window decorations
Mrs. W. J. Bradley, Lawrence Garden Club, for table
Mrs. Wm. K. Jackson, Chestnut Hill Garden Club, for
William N. Craig, for collection of herbaceous flowers
William Anderson, for superior culture of Campanula
Eugene N. Fischer, for seedling Gladiolus Frank 0.
MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES FOR 1929 41
Boston Mycological Club, for collection of mushrooms
Ernest H. Wilson, for planting of Lilium regale
Thomas Roland, for group of Cypripediums
Mrs. Galen L. Stone, for Yanda Sanderiana
Mrs. Homer Loring, for group of Chrysanthemums
Cherry Hill Nurseries, for group of hardy woody plants
Harlan P. Kelsey, for group of hardy woody plants
Dr. R. W. Thatcher, for his distinguished service to
Charles 0. Dexter, for his original work with Rhodo-
Professor F. A. Waugh, for his eminent service to horti-
Edward H. Lincoln, for wild flower photographs
Peter Fisher, for his distinguished service to horticulture
Miss Rebecca Manning, for preserving the Manning
Mrs. Edward Wigglesworth, for promoting horticultural
Thomas Dooley, for his work in horticulture
William P. Rich, for his 20 years as secretary
Springfield Park Department, for unusual skill in park
Town of Stockbridge, or its pioneer work in village
Phillips Andover Academy, for example in landscaping
The Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company of
Springfield, for its example in planting
Francis William Park at Walpole, model park and play-
Girl Scouts, for their wild flower sanctuary
Woman's Club of Shelburne Falls, for its unique service
Springfield Garden Club, for its unique service to horti-
Town of Weston, for raising the standard of town commons
Centennial Bronze Medal
J. H. Greatorex, for superior culture of Cattleya
Dr. and Mrs. Augustus Thorndike, for Orange-tree in fruit
42 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Howard Coonley, for Bauera rubioides, Brunfelsia caly-
cina, and Pittosporum tobira
Peabody Garden Club, for pottery exhibit
Thomas Roland, for display of Cypripediums
Charles 0. Dexter, for collection of seedling Rhododen-
Mrs. Geoffrey G. Whitney, Milton Garden Club
Mrs. Thomas Motley, Jr., North Shore Garden Club
Mrs. H. H. Buxton, Peabody Garden Club
Albert C. Burr age, for Cattleya Mossiae Reineckiana
George Palmer, for superior culture of Fuchsias, Helio-
tropes and Pelargoniums
Arthur A. Arenius, for seedling Gladiolus King Arthur
White & Johnson Co., for collection of rock plants
William MacGillvray, for culture of Nerines
The Casey Florist Co., for group of Cacti
Massachusetts Historical Society, for their collection
Bostonian Society, for their collection
John Francis Paramino, designer of medal
Large G-old Medal
The Montgomery Rose Co., for the best vase of Roses
Jere A. Downs, for specimen Cymbidium
Missouri Botanic Garden, for educational exhibit of
Mrs. Samuel Cabot, Noanett Garden Club
Mr. and Mrs. Edwin S. Webster, at Chestnut Hill Garden
Mary E. Parker, for her estate, Mosswood
Ben P. P. Moseley, first prize, for a porch overlooking a
George E. Baldwin & Co., at New York, for best exhibit
William N. Craig, for distinguished service to horticulture
E. I. Farrington, as secretary and as editor of Horticulture
Frederick Pocock, for his skill in horticulture
John S. Doig, for his skill in horticulture
Peter Arnott, for his skill in horticulture
Allen Jenkins, for his skill in horticulture
MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES FOR 1929 43
Exhibition G-old Medals
A. A. Pembroke, for Carnation Giant Laddie
W. Atlee Burpee Co., for display of Sweet Peas
W. T. Walke, for bulbous and foliage plants
Mrs. Thomas Nesmith, for display of Irises
Cherry Hill Nurseries, for display of Rhododendrons
William N. Craig, for collection of herbaceous perennials
William N. Craig, for display of Lilies
Seabrook Nurseries, for display of Gladioli
William N". Craig, for collection of outdoor Lilies
Jelle Roos, for display of Dahlias
Mrs. Moses Taylor, for display of vegetables.
Mrs. E. V. Hartford, for group of Chrysanthemums.
Wyman's Framingham Nurseries, for group of evergreens
and coniferous plants
Howard Coonley, for group of Winter-flowering Begonias
Mrs. Bayard Thayer, for display of Nerines
Thomas Roland, for display of Nerines
Peirce Bros., for display of cut Roses
J. J. LaMontagne, for display of cut Carnations
William H. Yanderbilt, group of Chrysanthemums
Parker Bros., for collection of apples
Louis Vasseur, for collection of fruit
R. W. Pierce, for collection of vegetables
Mrs. Moses Taylor, for collection of vegetables
Albert C. Burrage, for group of Calanthes
John Morris, for superior culture of Indian Azaleas
C. B. Johnson, for basket of Carnations
Samuel Untermeyer, for Odontoglossum Tityus
Baur & Steinkamp, for Carnation Pink Abundance
Massachusetts Agricultural College, for educational exhibit
Jamaica Plain High School, for educational exhibit
Boston Mycological Club, for educational exhibit
North Bennet St. Industrial School, for educational exhibit
Jelle Roos, for flowering bulbs
Walter E. Lenk, for Gardenias
M. P. Anderson, for group of Oleanders
Harold Ryan, for a Kentia australis 80 years old
Rocco Zeparo, for group of Dracaena Massangeana
Mrs. J. M. Sears, for group of Alonsoa
MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES FOR 1929 45
Mrs. Galen L. Stone, for Calceolaria hybrids
W. R. Coe, for Camellias
Mrs. Bayard Thayer, for Cherokee Roses
George Dean, for Iceland Poppy California
Nanna M. Bryant, for foliage plants
William Hannan & Sons, for Ferns
Jere A. Downs, for standard Verbenas
James Warr, for superior culture of Mignonette
Mrs. R. M. Saltonstall, for standard Verbenas and speci-
Eastern Nurseries, for display of evergreens
R. & J. Farquhar Co., for display of evergreens and
Ellen R. Hathaway, for Brunfelsia calycina
Mrs. Francis Lothrop, North Shore Garden Club
Mrs. John Codman, Noanett Garden Club
Mrs. Walter Austin, Noanett Garden Club
Walter Hunnewell, for cut Rhododendrons
Greenland Gardens, for long-spurred Columbine
Cherry Hill Nurseries, for display of Peonies
Cherry Hill Nurseries, for display of Peonies
Cherry Hill Nurseries, for basket of Peonies
Mrs. W. B. Parker, for basket of Peonies
Mrs. Moses Taylor, for collection of hardy Roses
Louis Vasseur, for collection of perennials
Henry L. F. Naber, for collection of perennials
Mrs. E. V. Hartford, for display of Sweet Peas
Charles Scott, for superior culture of Roses
Mrs. Geoffrey G. Whitney, at Cape Cod Horticultural
Jelle Roos, for display of Gladioli
Robert Laurie & Sons, for collection of cut Delphiniums
The Casey Florist Co., for collection of Cacti and suc-
Thomas Roland, for collection of potted Celosia plumosa
Mrs. Edward V. Hartford, for hardy herbaceous peren-
Joseph Breck & Sons, for exhibit of Dahlias and Gladioli
C. P. Knight, for collection of vegetables
R. W. Pierce, for collection of vegetables
Mr. and Mrs. Harry T. Hayward, for formal garden
Mrs. Pauline Shaw Fenno, for her wild garden
MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES FOR 1929 47
Bay State Nurseries, for group of evergreen and conifer-
Mrs. Homer Gage, for group of Chrysanthemums
Edwin S. Webster, for specimen Begonia
Mrs. M. Gail Stephens, for Begonia Orange King
Mrs. M. Gail Stephens, for Begonia Exquisite
Edwin S. Webster, for Begonia Emita
Butterworth's, for Cattleya Portia
Butterworth's, for Cypripedium insigne Sanderae
Butterworth's, for Oncidium ornithorhynchum
Butterworth's, for Epidendrum cochleatum
Albert C. Burrage, for Laeliocattleya Robertiana Franciscio
Mrs. Homer Loring, for specimen Chrysanthemum plant
Charles C. Walker, for cut Chrysanthemums
Halifax Gardens, for display of cut roses
White & Johnson Co., for display of cut Carnations
Mrs, Irving Wright, for breakfast table decoration
Mrs. Irving Wright, for luncheon table decoration
Mrs. Henry G. Vaughan, for dinner table decoration
Mrs. John Ramsey, for breakfast table decoration
Miss Elizabeth Weld, for luncheon table decoration
Mrs. R. D. Sears, for dinner table decoration
George Halliday, for culture of Vanda Sanderiana and
William MacBean, for culture of Chrysanthemums
Joseph Breck & Sons, for the artistic effect of their
Mrs. J. Henry Lancashire, for collection of apples
John Bauernfeind, for collection of grapes
J. F. Cummings, for collection of vegetables
Mrs. Ellerton James, for collection of vegetables
Mary Hemenway School, for educational exhibit
Ben P. P. Moseley, for Orange-trees
Minnie H. Floyd, for Camellia japonica
Paul S. Ciaponni, for Euphorbia splendens
Miss Faucon, for Orange-tree 25 years old
Joseph LaSpada, for Orange plant in fruit
Cottage Gardens, for Camellias
Arthur Lyman, for Cherokee Roses
Longfellow School, for collection of bulbous plants
48 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Bennett School, for collection of bulbous plants
Nanna Matthews Bryant, for Primula kewensis
Eastern Nurseries, for Picea glauca conica
Mrs. John D. Adams, the Community Garden Club of
Miss Ruth Ely, North Andover Garden Club
James Donald, for collection of flowering shrubs
Cherry Hill Nurseries, for new Peony
Mrs. W. B. Parker, for basket of Peonies
William F. Dusseault, for collection of hardy Roses
Stuart Duncan, for display of Sweet Peas
Bancroft Winsor, for display of Peonies
James R. Cass, for culture of Lilium Washingtonianum
Jelle Roos, for basket of Cactus Dahlias
Jelle Roos, for basket of Dahlias
William N. Craig, for collection of herbaceous flowers
A. P. Smith, for collection of tomatoes
Mr. and Mrs. Henry B. Pennell, for Italian garden
Mrs. Homer Loring, for specimen Chrysanthemum plant
Mrs. Homer Gage, for cut Chrysanthemums
Mrs. Wendall Taber, for breakfast table decoration
Mrs. Horace Soule, for luncheon table decoration
Mrs. Charles Belknap, for dinner table decoration
Mrs. W. L. Benedict, for breakfast table decoration
Mrs. Theodore Chadwick, for luncheon table decoration
Mrs. Samuel Cabot, for dinner table decoration
Paul Frost, for a city garden showing individuality and
self expression to an unusual degree
Mrs. J. Frederic Hussey, for an intimate city garden of
First Class Certificate
Sweet Pea Mrs. Herbert Hoover, exhibited by W. Atlee
Laeliocattleya Majestic King Purple, exhibited by Albert
Odontioda Coronation, exhibited by Albert C. Burrage
Dendrobium Gatton Sunray, Westonbirt var., exhibited
by Albert C. Burrage
Laeliocattleya Aphrodite Eclipse, exhibited by Albert C.
MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES FOR 1929 49
Award of Merit
Sweet Pea New Lavender, exhibited by W. Atlee Burpee
Iceland Poppy California, exhibited by George Dean
Variegated Ward Carnations, exhibited by Morningside
Carnation Centennial, exhibited by S. J. Goddard
Dianthus Lindy, exhibited by Robert Laurie & Son
Lilium Washingtonianum, exhibited by James R. Cass
Gladiolus Miss Joy, exhibited by J. C. Farnsworth Co.
Dahlia Katherine Norris, exhibited by Jelle Roos.
Taxus media Hatfieldii
" " Hatfieldii, dwarf form
" " orbicula
" " brevif olia seedling
" " brevifolia columnaris
" " Wymanii
" " Hunnewelliana
" " canadensis stricta
Vote of Commendation
Sweet Pea Red Bird, exhibited by W. Atlee Burpee Co.
New Ontario Grape, exhibited by Henry L. F. Naber
Fourteen varieties of filberts or hazelnuts, exhibited by
the New York State Experiment Station.
Collection of apples, exhibited by Charles 0. Dexter
William Anderson, for superior culture of Campanula
New York State Experiment Station, for 14 varieties of
filberts or hazelnuts
Vote of Thanks
Samuel Knowles, for display of Peonies
George N. Smith, for display of seedling Peonies
T. F. Donahue, for vase of Iris Swazi
Shay lor & Allison, for display of Peonies
W. B. Parker, for display of Peonies
E. H. Wetterlow & Son, for Dianthus caryophyllus var.
Mrs. Van Buren, for greenhouse melon Cotton's Hybrid
MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES FOR 1929 51
John B. Wills, for vase of Alberic Barbier Rose
John B. Wills, for vase of Silver Moon Rose
John B. Wills, for bowl of Alberic Barbier Rose
Mrs. Bayard Thayer, for display of Bouvardias
William N. Craig, for Lilies and Buddleia
Mrs. Robert C. Morse, for vase of Dahlias
M. I. Nelson, for Crassula arborescens
Neil Ward, for display of Pansies
Horace L. Mann, for vase of Honesty and Chinese Lan-
1929 Bronze Medals for Children's Gardens, Presented by-
Miss Marian Roby Case
Martin School Garden
North End Garden
Deerfield Street Garden
Pauline E. Wolf
Washington Irving School
Lillian Assof Muriel Donovan
Ernest Dager Genie Corea
Zenon Gerry Emily Driscoll
John Howe Sherwood Stedman
Bennett School, Brighton
Norfolk House Centre
Jamaica Plain High School, Agricultural Department
Edward F. Brady James W. Robertson
A. Malcolm Campbell Ralph Rosenthal
Horace L. Haley William E. Whitehead
Richard M. Clogston
James Brann Charles Infusino
Frederick Deeg John Richardson
52 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Guy E. Reed, Jr. James P. Lally
Lewis H. Parks Patrick O'Grady
Mary Bedford William Kelly
John Bean Eva Valle
Henry A. Wheeler Robert Robichaud
Christopher MeGrath Wiljo Kangas
Mutations and Variations in the Gladiolus
By Eugene N. Fischer
While growing large numbers of gladiolus for breeding pur-
poses, one is naturally on the alert for those odd variations
from type such as occasionally occur among seedlings result-
ing from many different and peculiar crosses. These varia-
tions, often so slight in the beginning that they might easily
be overlooked by any but a trained and careful observer, are
always worthy of attention and study, as among them we
may find some that have in themselves the beginnings of new
types of interest or value.
This form of treasure-hunting is always of the greatest in-
terest and in connection with ray own work in breeding I
often make drawings of such variations, as I note among the
seedlings, as records for purposes of study and comparison.
Some of these are herewith reproduced as illustrations.
Among my earlier observations regarding variations of this
character were those in connection with the occasional occur-
rence of radially symmetrical (actinomorphic) flowers among
gladioli, which first attracted my interest some fifteen years
ago. In these blooms the six segments, all equally marked in
color and evenly distributed from the center, produce a lily-
like form that is most interesting and unusual in gladioli.
These blooms have been observed by me and by other growers
as occasionally occurring among our plants but usually only
as single flowers and very rarely as complete and permanent
The trait did not seem to be at all constant, as the same bulb
marked and planted another season usually produced nothing
but normal flowers. On several occasions I made crosses of
these radially symmetrical blooms but found none of the type
among the offspring. However, by persistence and recrossing
among these, a seedling was finally bred in which the entire
spike developed radially symmetrical flowers. When propa-
gated from the bulblets this seedling proved to hold true and
to be quite constant in keeping its unusual form, only very
rarely showing a bloom of normal type.
This variety has now been grown for some seasons and is
entirely dependable. It has been named Ornatus. So far we
have been able to cross Ornatus with only certain varieties,
Ornatus, a new type of gladiolus
A radial symmetrical form
A double gladiolus bloom
A semi-double flower
Miss T. Rose, normal type
Peculiar variation of Miss T. Rose
MUTATIONS AND VARIATIONS IN GLADIOLUS 55
but it has already produced some radially symmetrical types.
How permanent these will remain it is still too early to say.
Large-flowered gladioli of radially symmetrical form, well
fixed and established, would in my opinion make interesting
and ornamental garden flowers and be very effective in deco-
rative work. Doubtless some day we shall have them, but it
takes time for a variation of this kind to become established
as a fixed race.
Another interesting possibility is the development of the
double gladioli. "We frequently found flowers with more than
the usual six segments and with double the number of stamens
or more than one style. But as far as I am aware no good
double variety or any with a permanent trait of produc-
ing double flowers had been produced. A corm producing
partly double flowers one season usually showed normal
flowers the next. I tried crosses with semi-double flowers but
none of the offspring came double.
In the summer of 1925 a double flowered spike appeared
in my fields among a lot of mixed seedlings and it was the
first double flower I had seen among the gladioli. The corm
died the following season but the bulblets developed, and
after two years flowered, and all came true doubles though
not quite so large as in the original spike. The following year,
which was 1929, they came double again. Some of these flow-
ers had two or three styles which were longer than usual and
had undeveloped stigmas. I tried to cross some of these flow-
ers but no seed was formed.
Abrupt variations have usually been termed sports by
horticulturists but now among plant breeders the term
mutants is more generally used. A true mutant is ordinarily
permanent, being caused by a change in the germ plasm, but
many variations that appear to be mutants are really only
transient fluctuations caused by external influences.
For example, one summer I found among a lot of my
variety Miss T. Rose a spike showing quite differently formed
flowers. It had every appearance of a true mutant, but the
following summer the corm produced normal flowers, show-
ing that the variation was external, though what caused it I
have no idea, since the plant was healthy and conditions were
as usual ; it was very likely some physical disturbance.
An orchid form, of gladiolus
Lacinatus, a Kunderd introduction
Fluffy Ruffles, a Brown introduction
Another Fluffy Ruffles from the
The Orchid (Sprayue) showing
Gandavensis seedling, both
laciniated and lobed
MUTATIONS AND VARIATIONS IN GLADIOLUS 57
Whether or not laciniated or serrated edges of segments
are true mutations is questionable, since the individual flowers
vary on the same spike as well as on different spikes, and they
are not so perfectly formed as are characters of this sort in
other flowers. The illustrations show the irregular variations
of the laciniated edges. None of my seedlings were bred from
It is possible that these laciniated types may develop into
true mutants, as many of our horticultural varieties are
mutants that were produced by long selection. Our double
flowers are probably mutants and some varieties gradually
To obtain new varieties through mutations is naturally
difficult since it is practically entirely a matter of chance.
We have not the opportunity for obtaining recombinations
and modifications that we have in hybridizing. But though
rare and difficult to find and to develop, these natural varia-
tions constitute one of the best opportunities for the produc-
tion of something really difficult and distinct, and conse-
quently are a source of never failing interest to growers and
breeders of things horticultural everywhere.
George Robert White Medal
Award in 1929
Miss Gertrude Jekyll
The trustees voted late in 1929 to award the George Robert
White Medal of Honor for that year to Miss Gertrude Jekyll,
V. M. H., the English amateur gardener and author, whose
influence over gardening has been world wide. This vote was
made on recommendation of a committee consisting of Oakes
Ames, Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby and William C. Endicott.
Miss Jekyll, who observed her 86th birthday on November
29, 1929, has often been called the grand old lady of English
gardening. She is really far more than that, because she has
done much to mould the trend of gardening practices in all
civilized countries. Furthermore, her sympathetic under-
standing of plants and of the men and women who cultivate
them has given her a unique position in horticulture. It may
well be said of her that she is the mother of present day
gardening and that all gardeners are her children, who love
her and pay her the homage that is her due.
GEORGE ROBERT WHITE MEDAL 59
Without question Miss Jekyll, by her writings and her
gently exercised influence on those writers with whom she
has come in contact, has changed the whole tone of horti-
cultural literature. Her books are not dry as dust tomes full
of rules and lists of plants, but on the contrary are charming
volumes which can be read with the greatest enjoyment and
with immeasurable profit by all flower lovers, whether they
are experts or merely amateurs.
Garden Clubs in Massachusetts
Massachusetts State Federation of Garden Clubs.
President, Mrs. Thomas Motley, Jr., Hyde Park.
Secretary, Mrs. H. H. Buxton, 114 Central St., Peabody.
Amherst Woman's Club (Garden Section) — 55 members.
Chairman, Mrs. George B. Churchill, Spring St., Amherst.
Secretary, Mrs. Henry E. Ryan, North Hadley.
Amherst, Garden Club of — 20 members.
President, Mrs. F. A. Waugh, Stockbridge Road, Amherst.
Secretary, Mrs. S. R. Williams, South Pleasant St., Amherst.
Andover Garden Club — 100 members.
President, Mrs. J. M. Stewart, Phillips Inn, Andover.
Secretary, Mrs. George G. Brown, 68 Phillips St., Andover.
Andover, North, Garden Club — 40 members.
President, Mrs. Lewis S. Bigelow, (June 1st to Nov. 1st) North
Andover; (Nov. 1st to June 1st) 1010 Fifth Ave., New York.
Secretary, Mrs. John Coolidge, Ashdale Farm, North Andover;
(After Nov. 1st) 171 Commonwealth Ave., Boston.
Beacon Hill Garden Club — 47 members.
President, Mrs. Frank A. Bourne, 130 Mt. Vernon St., Boston.
Secretary, Mrs. Charles L. Norton, 5 Acorn St., Boston.
Beverly Improvement Society.
President, Miss Mary Boyden, 6 Washington St., Beverly.
Secretary, Miss Bessie A. Baker, Monument Sq., Beverly.
Billerica Garden Club — 50 members.
President, Mrs. Forrest F. Collier, Boston Road, Billerica.
Secretary, Mrs. Hugh Cochrane, Boston Road, Billerica.
Boston, Greater, Little Garden Club of.
President, Mrs. Walter C. Brady, 11 Claremont St., E. Braintree.
Secretary, Mrs. James R. Barrie, 78 Rowe St., Melrose.
Brockton Garden Club.
President, Mrs. James P. Keith, 59 Woodside Ave., Campello.
Secretary, Mrs. Clarence C. Reed, 1531 Main St., Campello.
Cambridge Plant Club.
President, Mrs. L. E. Emerson, 64 Sparks St., Cambridge.
Secretary, Miss Caroline E. Peabody, 40 Appleton St., Cambridge.
Cape Ann Garden Club — 90 members.
President, Mrs. Henry A. Wise Wood, 194 Riverside Drive, New
Secretary, Miss Alice Scott, Overbrook, Pa.
GARDEN CLUBS IN MASSACHUSETTS 61
Chelmsford Garden Club.
President, Mrs. Harold D. MacDonald, Chelmsford.
Secretary, Miss Lillian Kilbourne, Chelmsford.
Chestnut Hill Garden Club — 200 members.
President, Mr. George Bramwell Baker, 76 Crafts Road, Chestnut
Secretary, Mrs. William K. Jackson, Chestnut Hill Road, Chestnut
Cohasset Garden Club — 51 members.
President, Mrs. William H. Brown, 304 Beacon St., Boston.
Secretary, Miss Mary C. Sears, 250 Beacon St., Boston.
Concord Garden Club — 75 members.
President, Mrs. Sherman Hoar, Liberty St., Concord.
Secretary, Mrs. Francis B. Shepley, Monument St., Concord.
Duxbury Garden Club, The — 21 members.
President, Mrs. William L. Benedict, 25 Essex Road, Chestnut Hill ;
(Summer) The Channels, Powder Point, Duxbury.
Secretary, Mrs. Harry B. Stebbins, 86 Sargent St., Newton;
(Summer) Powder Point, Duxbury.
Duxbury, Community Garden Club of — 300 members.
President, Dr. Nathaniel W. Emerson, Duxbury.
Secretary, Miss Susan P. Moulton, 172 Beacon St., Boston;
Fitchburg Garden Club — 90 members.
President, Mrs. Mary F. Colburn, 38 Osgood St., Fitchburg.
Secretary, Mrs. George Rice, 86 Lawrence St., Fitchburg.
Garden Lovers' Club.
President, Mrs. F. E. Bateman, 163 Highland Ave., Somerville.
Secretary, Mrs. Edwin L. Joyce, 21 Cross St., Medford.
Gloucester Garden Club — 25 members.
President, Mrs. Percy C. Proctor, 522 Washington St., Gloucester.
Secretary, Miss Suzanne S. Center, 20 Washington St., Gloucester.
Great Barrington Garden Club — 61 members.
President, Rev. C. Thurston Chase, The Manse, Great Barrington.
Secretary, Mrs. Howard Reynolds, Great Barrington.
Greenfield Garden Club.
President, Mrs. E. J. Bryant, 19 James St., Greenfield.
Secretary, Miss Carolyn M. Newell, 53 High St., Greenfield.
62 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Groton Garden Club — 62 members.
President, Mrs. H. H. Richards, Groton.
Secretary, Mrs. Carl A. P. Lawrence, Groton.
Harvard Garden Club — 54 members.
President, Mrs. J. Edward Maynard, Ayer Road, Harvard.
Secretary, Mrs. Lester G. Brown, Box 103, Harvard.
Hingham Garden Club — 212 members.
President, Mr. Francis H. Lincoln, Hingham.
Secretary, Mrs. Arthur K. Paddock, Hingham.
Ipswich Garden Club — 38 members.
President, Mrs. Romney Spring, 21 Charles River Sq., Boston;
(Summer) Andover Road, Boxford.
Secretary, Mrs. Robert B. Osgood, 38 Chestnut St., Boston;
(Summer) Argilla Road, Ipswich.
Lawrence Garden Club — 131 members.
President, Mrs. Edwin A. Buthmann, 172 E. Haverhill St., Lawrence.
Secretary, Miss Lillian M. Wainwright, 55 Bellevue St., Lawrence.
Lenox Garden Club.
President, Miss Georgiana N. Sargent, Lenox.
Secretary, Miss M. Parsons, Lenox.
Lincoln Garden Club.
President, Mrs. Charles N. Briggs, Lincoln.
Secretary, Mrs. Irving L. Hill, Lincoln.
Littleton Garden Club — 45 members.
President, Dr. John W. Estabrooks, 419 Boylston St., Boston ;
Secretary, Mrs. Elmer P. Sargent, Littleton.
Lowell Garden Club — 88 members.
President, Mrs. Thomas Nesmith, 166 Fairmount St., Lowell.
Secretary, Mrs. Harry W. Knowlton, 24 Monadnock Ave., Lowell.
Lynn, Greater, Garden Club of — 50 members.
President, Mrs. Henry C. Atwill, 43 Atlantic Terrace, Lynn.
Secretary, Mrs. John Le Vine, Deer Cove Inn, Swampscott.
Marblehead Garden Club — 38 members.
President, Mrs. William Chisholm, 41 Chestnut St., Marblehead.
Secretary, Mrs. Stillman Weston, Weston Road.
Martha's Vineyard Garden Club — 190 members.
President, Mrs. T. M. Randolph Meickleham, Edgartown.
Secretary, Miss Amy Ferris, 36 East 72nd St., New York;
(June to October) Vineyard Haven.
GARDEN CLUBS IN MASSACHUSETTS 63
Melrose Garden Club — 125 members.
President, Mrs. Harry N. Vaughan, 65 Gooch St., Melrose;
(Summer) 10 High St., Topsfield.
Secretary, Mrs. Robert Munson, 357 East Foster St., Melrose.
Milton Garden Club — 60 members.
President, Mrs. Bernard W. Trafford, Woodland Road, Readville.
Secretary, Mrs. James W. Rollins, Brush Hill, Hyde Park.
Nahant Garden Club
President, Mrs. Fred A, Wilson, Nahant.
Secretary, Mr. Harry R. Cummings, Nahant.
New Bedford, Greater, Garden Club — 664 members.
President, Mrs. Henry P. Burt, 355 Union St., New Bedford.
Secretary — Mrs. George H. Sistare, 474 Park St., New Bedford.
Newton Garden Club — 35 members.
President, Mr. H. C. Fraser, 48 Eldredge St., Newton.
Secretary, Mrs. H. C. Fraser, 48 Eldredge St., Newton.
Newtonville, Garden Club o£ — 29 members.
President, Mrs. A. M. Ziegler, 580 Walnut St., Newtonville.
Secretary, Mrs. Arthur W. Church, 59 Judkins St., Newtonville.
Noanett Garden Club — 100 members.
President, Mrs. I. Tucker Burr, 169 Commonwealth Ave., Boston.
Secretary, Mrs. Francis W. Bird, East Walpole.
North Shore Garden Club — 50 members.
President, Mrs. F. S. Moseley, 144 Beacon St., Boston;
(Summer) "Maudsley," Newburyport.
Secretary, Mrs. Ward Thoron, 253 Marlboro St., Boston;
(Summer) "The Lindens," Danvers.
Peabody Garden Club — 60 members.
President, Mrs. Frank Taylor, 132 Andover St., Peabody.
Secretary, Mrs. Harold W. Legro, 249 Lynn St., Peabody.
Plymouth Garden Club.
President, Mrs. Frank Taylor, 132 Andover St., Peabody.
Secretary, Miss Christina Watson, Plymouth.
Richmond Garden Club.
President, Mrs. W. Rockwood Gibbs.
Secretary, Mrs. Ray C. Williams.
Rockport Garden Club.
President, Mrs. Frances C. Spain, Rockport.
Secretary, Mrs. Gertrude Ruston, Rockport.
64 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Salem Garden Club — 60 members.
President, Mr. F. Carroll Sargent, 161 North St., Salem.
Secretary, Mrs. Willard A. Porter, 5 Lee St., Salem.
Scituate Garden Club — 50 members.
President, Mrs. Charles E. Monroe, 132 High St., Brookline;
Secretary (pro tern), Mrs. David N. Blakeley, Beech Rd., Brookline.
Springfield Garden Club — 600 members.
President, Mrs. Moses Lyman, 16 Westmoreland Ave., Longmeadow.
Secretary, Mrs. Gurdon W. Gordon, 90 Dartmouth St., Springfield.
Stoneham Garden Club.
President, Mrs. J. P. Hylan, 97 Williams St., Stoneham.
Secretary, Mrs. J. P. Hinds, 12 Butler Ave., Stoneham.
Swampscott Garden Club — 100 members.
President, Mrs. Charles A. Proctor, 297 Commonwealth Ave., Boston.
Secretary, Mrs. Charles B. Price, 93 Phillips Ave., Swampscott.
Swansea, County Garden Club of — 50 members.
President, Mrs. Harry Fuller, 294 Wayland Ave., Providence, R. I. ;
(Summer) Touisset, Mass.
Secretary, Mrs. Willard C. Gardner, Orlanda, Fla., Route 2;
(Summer) Touisset, Mass.
Topspield Garden Club — 16 members.
President, Miss Katherine F. Wellman, Topsfield, Box 237.
Secretary, Mrs. Harlan P. Kelsey, Jr., East Boxford.
Walpole Woman's Club (Garden Department) — 25 members.
Chairman, Mrs. Joseph S. Leach, 238 School St., Walpole.
Secretary, Mrs. William V. Price, East St., Walpole.
Wayland Garden Club — 75 members.
President, Mrs. J. C. Hubbard, Old Connecticut Path, Wayland.
Secretary, Miss Clara Parmenter, Concord Road, Wayland.
Worcester Garden Club — 73 members.
President, Mrs. James E. Whitin, North Uxbridge.
Secretary, Mrs. Samuel T. Hobbs, 216 Park Ave., Worcester;
(May 1st to Nov. 1st) Princeton.
Who was awarded the
Frank R. Pierson
Who was awarded the
Thomas Roland Medal
Exhibitions in the Year 1930
TO BE HELD IN
300 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, Mass.
EXHIBITIONS AND DATES
March 25-30. Spring Exhibition
Tuesday, 1 P.M. to 9 P.M.; Wednesday, Thurs-
day, Friday and Saturday, 9 A.M. to 9 P.M.;
Sunday, 12 M. to 9 P.M.
June 7-8. Iris, Rhododendron and Azalea
Saturday, 2 to 9 P.M.; Sunday, 12 M. to 9 P.M.
June 21-22. Peony, Rose, Sweet Pea and
Saturday, 2 to 9 P.M.; Sunday, 12 M. to 9 P.M.
August 23-24. Gladiolus Exhibition
Saturday, 2 to 9 P.M.; Sunday, 12 M. to 9 P.M.
August 27-28. Exhibition of the Products of
Wednesday and Thursday, 1 to 6 P.M.
September 6-7. Dahlia Exhibition
Saturday, 2 to 9 P.M.; Sunday, 12 M. to 9 P.M.
October 31-November 2. Autumn Exhibition
Friday, 2 to 9 P.M.; Saturday, 10 A.M. to
9 P.M.; Sunday, 12 M. to 9 P.M.
Medals and Certificates of the
Massachusetts Horticultural Society
The following are the awards of the Massachusetts Horti-
cultural Society in the order of their value :
The George Robert White Medal of Honor
The Jackson Dawson Medal
The Thomas Roland Medal
The Large Gold Medal
The Exhibition Gold Medal
The Large Silver Medal
The Exhibition Silver Medal
The Bronze Medal
The George Robert White Medal:
The George Robert White Medal is among the highest
horticultural awards in America. This medal is given once a
year to the man or woman, commercial firm or institution,
in the United States or other countries, that in the opinion
of the Gommittee has done the most to advance interest in
horticulture in its broadest sense.
The Jackson Dawson Medal :
The Jackson Dawson Medal is awarded annually, by vote
of the Trustees, for skill in the science and practice of
hybridization and propagation of hardy woody plants.
The Thomas Roland Medal:
The Thomas Roland Medal is awarded from time to time
for skill in commercial horticulture.
The Large Gold Medal:
The Large Gold Medal is the highest award of the Society
given at exhibitions; it is also awarded, by vote of the
Trustees on recommendations of the Garden Committee, for
gardens of unusual merit ; and on vote of the Trustees, to
garden superintendents of eminent ability. This medal is not
to be awarded at the exhibitions to any exhibit scoring less
than ninety points.
68 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
The Exhibition Gold Medal :
The Exhibition Gold Medal is awarded at the exhibitions
to meritorious exhibits which score not less than eighty
The Silver Medals :
The Silver Medals are awarded at exhibitions for exhibits
of exceptional merit ; they are also given on vote of the
Trustees to men, women or firms which have done note-
worthy service in horticulture. At exhibitions they shall not
be awarded to any entry scoring less than sixty points.
The Bronze Medal:
The Bronze Medal is awarded at exhibitions to exhibits of
merit which score not less than fifty points.
First Class Certificate of Merit :
This is awarded to new or noteworthy plants, flowers,
fruits or vegetables of exceptional value. This is the Soci-
ety's highest award to such exhibits and is not given to any
product scoring less than ninety-three points.
Award of Merit:
This is awarded to new or noteworthy plants, flowers,
fruits or vegetables which score not less than eighty points.
Vote of Commendation :
This is awarded to new plants, flowers, fruits or vegetables
which score not less than sixty points.
Cultural Certificate :
This certificate is given to exhibitors of plants, flowers,
fruits or vegetables which show evidence of unusually skill-
Garden Certificate :
This certificate is given on vote of the Trustees to men,
women or firms reported during the current year as per-
forming notable work in some phase of horticulture.
Vote of Thanks :
MARCH 19 to 23, 1929
Mr. Moseletfs Prize Winning Porch
Award to Mr. Ben Perley Poore Moseley
Mr. Albert C. Burr age offered a fund at the inaugural
meeting in January, 1929, the interest therefrom to be used
for a medal to be awarded the house owner in Massachusetts
who, in the course of a year, added to his house the most
attractive and serviceable porch overlooking a garden and
permitting the entrance of much sunlight. The award for
1929 was made to Mr. Ben Perley Poore Moseley of Ipswich.
Describing this porch the owner writes :
The idea was conceived by Mrs. Moseley so that we could have
a place to sit and enjoy the beauties of the rose garden. When we
found that on account of the location of this porch it would be a
great protection to the rose garden in Winter, the idea appealed to
us more than ever. The porch runs about northeast and southwest
so that in the Summer we can breakfast there with the early morn-
ing sunlight on one side and the rose garden on the other. Inciden-
tally, there is a beautiful view of the ocean beyond. In the afternoon,
the house cuts off the sun from the porch and the southwest breeze
blows across. The porch is 12 by 19 feet and has a low, vaulted
plastered ceiling 10 feet high in the middle. It is shingled to corre-
spond with the rest of the house. On the top of the porch there is
a little lighthouse where a 1,000-watt light has been installed.
A trustee for 21 years,
who passed away
December 11, 1929,
at the age of 67
A trustee since 1927,
who passed away
January 13, 1930,
at the age of 55
Thomas Roland (1863-1929)
In every industry and art, and in almost every community
there are leaders who tower above their fellow men, and when
death steps in the loss is as the loss of an institution rather
than of a person. Such a loss American horticulture in general
and the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in particular
suffered by the sudden death on December 11, 1929, of Thomas
Eoland in his sixty-seventh year.
Thomas Roland of Nahant was internationally known for
his skill as a grower of greenhouse plants. His Acacias were
among the most famous collections of plants in America and
one of the best known, for his public spirit and generosity
had frequently caused them to be taken and placed on exhibi-
tion in cities remote from Massachusetts.
No matter what plant he undertook to grow Mr. Roland had
a touch unique that brought complete success. The secret was
his profound love for all flowers and among them he inti-
mately lived. One of his first achievements was in the cultiva-
tion and propagation of Lemoine's great gift to greenhouses,
the Gloire de Lorraine Begonia. Cyclamen, Ericas, Roses,
Easter Lilies, Oranges, and I know not what besides were all
equally easy to this great plantsman. In later years Orchids,
especially Cypripediums, became his pets and with these as
with other plants he was very successful. Not only was Mr.
Roland a master grower but he possessed exquisite taste and
great artistic ability and the beauty and charm of his exhibits
won him many famed awards.
His business instincts were sound and in everything he
undertook he was thorough and painstaking, giving freely of
his time, energy and ability. He served long on the councils of
several national and many local horticultural organizations,
including The Society of American Florists and Ornamental
Horticulturists, of which he was President during one term
and the recipient of the Medal of Honor. As Trustee of the
Massachusetts Horticultural Society he rendered signal serv-
ices during the last twenty-one years of his life.
Profound of thought, deliberate of speech, a stickler for law
and principle, Thomas Roland was sagacious and courteous in
debate and as a rule won over those opposed to his views. He
will be remembered as a great plantsman, a wise counsellor, a
loyal and generous friend. Great and good, Thomas Roland
was a simple gentleman — sans peur et sans reproche.
E. H. W.
A huge Cycas Revoluta shown by Mr. and Mrs. Albert C. Burrage
at the Centennial Autumn Exhibition in Boston
How to Use the Library
Bequests come almost daily for advice on some point con-
nected with the use of the Library. The publication of the
rules and of general information on the relations of the
Library to the borrowers should, accordingly, be of general
interest. As the Library is for the benefit of the whole Society,
the rules are as few as will provide the machinery for smooth
Location. The Library is on the top floor of Horticultural
Hall, and may be reached by stairs or by elevator. The elevator
shaft is in the left corner of the entrance lobby, near the door
of the small exhibition hall.
Hours. The Library is open daily in winter from 9 a.m. to
5 p.m. During exhibitions of the Society, it is open on Sundays
from 2 to 5 p.m. In summer the Saturday hours are 9 a.m.
to 1 p.m.
Catalogues and reading lists. A printed catalogue, com-
plete through 1918, is for sale at $5.00. It is supplemented by
a list of the year's accessions published annually in the Year
Book and by short lists at intervals in Horticulture. Lists on
subjects of current importance or by prominent authors are
also published in Horticulture. Personal requests for sugges-
tions on topics of individual interest are welcomed.
Use. The Library is freely available to the public for
reference use, but only members of the Society may
borrow books for use at home. To obtain them, it is necessary
only to write a note telling what book is wanted or on what
subject information is needed. In the latter case, the Library
staff will find it helpful to know in some detail the problem
in question, for books on apparently simple subjects are
often written from widely different points of view. Members
borrowing books for the first time are asked to enclose their
membership cards for identification.
Rules. The rules of the Library, as approved by the
Library Committee, are as follows :
1. Number. Any reasonable number of books may be bor-
rowed at one time.
2. Reserves. Books may be reserved if they are out when
74 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
3. Restricted classes. Bound periodicals, trade catalogues,
very large and valuable books may be used only in the Library.
4. Borrowing by mail. Books may be borrowed and re-
turned by mail. Postage outbound is prepaid by the Library,
and on return by the borrower.
5. Loan period. Books taken by the borrower in person
are charged for three weeks. Books borrowed by mail are
charged for four weeks, and should be posted in time to reach
the Library by the date on which they are due. (Note : the date
on which each book is due is stamped inside the back cover.)
6. Renewals. Books may be renewed upon request, pro-
vided there is no waiting list.
7. Study privilege. For intensive study, special arrange-
ment may be made to keep books for longer than the usual
period, provided they are not needed by other members. This
arrangement must, however, be made individually for each
case. It cannot be regarded at any time as a standing agree-
8. Fines. Books overdue are subject to a fine of two cents
a day. Willingness to pay the fine does not entitle the bor-
rower to hold a book. Books are not issued while a fine remains
9. Overdue notices. Notices of books overdue are sent
after a reasonable interval, but borrowers themselves should
keep in mind the date upon which a book is due.
10. Lost or damaged books. Members losing or damaging
books shall bear the cost of replacement or repair.
Dorothy St. J. Manks, Librarian.
Gifts to the Library
The Massachusetts Horticultural Society acknowledges with
thanks gifts to the Library from the following donors in 1929 :
Index generalis: the yearbook of the universities, libraries . . .
learned societies. 1923-1924.
Ballard, James F.
Abhandlung iiber die anwendung des kochsalzes auf den feld-
und gartenbau . . . von C. W. Johnson, aus dem englisehen
der zweiten ausgabe iibersetzt und mit einer vorrede begleitet
von C. K. 1825.
Cherrington, Miss M. E.
Familiar lectures on botany; 4th ed. rev. and enl., by Mrs. A. H.
Craig, William N.
Ten months abroad, by Mr. and Mrs. William Cuthbertson.
Farrington, Edward I.
The span of one hundred years, by Edward I. Farrington. 1929.
Truly rural, by Richardson Wright. 1922.
Higgins, Myrta M.
Little gardens for boys and girls, by M. M. Higgins. 1910.
Pennsylvania State College.
Some Pennsylvania pioneers in agricultural science, by T. I.
A revision of the genus Calochortus, by Carl Purdy. 1901.
(Proceedings of California Academy of Sciences, 3rd series,
Botany, v. 2, no. 4)
How to grow roses; 17th ed. enl. and entirely rewritten, by R.
Pyle, J. H. McFarland and G. A. Stevens. 1930.
Reynolds, Philip K.
The banana, its history, cultivation, and place among staple
foods, by P. K. Reynolds. 1927.
Scheepers, John, Inc.
Beauty from bulbs, published by John Scheepers, Inc. 1929.
Index to Beautv from bulbs, published by John Scheepers, Inc.
New books added to the library in the year 1929 include
Abjornson, E. Ornamental dwarf fruit trees, how to grow and
train them in the home garden. 1929.
Algemeene vereeniging voor bloembollencultuur, Haarlem. Hardy
bulbous plants (Florilegium Haarlemense) edited by E. Step.
Arnold, S. Wayside marketing. 1929.
Atkinson, G. F. First studies of plant life. 1901.
Auchter, E. C. Orchard and small fruit culture, by E. C. Auchter
and H. B. Knapp. 1929.
Bahr, F. Fritz Bahr's commercial floriculture; 3rd (rev.) ed.
B.aines, T. Greenhouse and stove plants, flowering and fine leaved,
palms, ferns, and lycopodiums. 1894.
Balfour, J. H. The plants of the Bible. 1857.
Bean, W. J. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles; 4th ed.
The Bartram garden, Philadelphia. 1929.
Bear, F. E. Soil management; 2nd ed. rev. and enl. 1927.
Beddome, R. H. A revised list of all the ferns found in India,
Ceylon, Birmah and Malay Peninsula, with references to . . .
"The ferns of Southern India" and "The ferns of British India"
and descriptions of some new species. 1876.
Bennett, J. M. Roadside development. 1929.
Benson, A. E. History of the Massachusetts Horticultural So-
Bentham, George. Handbook of British flora; ed. 7, rev. by A. B.
Bois, D. Les plantes alimentaires chez tous les peuples et a travers
les ages, t.2. 1928.
Bolles, C. B. Cultivation of the dahlia. 1921-1926.
Bolles, F. Chocorua's tenants. 1895.
Bolles, F. From Blomidon to Smoky and other papers. 1894.
Bonnier, G. Name this flower. 19.17.
Bonpland, A. Description des plantes rares cultivees a Malmaison
et a Navarre. 1813.
Bouquet, A. G. B. Cauliflower and broccoli culture. 1929.
Brenchley, W. E. Weeds of farm land. 1920.
Browning, G. H. The children's book of wild flowers and the story
of their names. 1927.
Bunyard, E. A. Anatomy of dessert. 1929.
LIBRARY ACCESSIONS 77
Bunyard, E. A. Handbook of hardy fruits, v.2. Stone and bush
Burgess, T. W. Burgess flower book for children. 1928.
Burroughs, J. The writings of Burroughs; Riverby edition. 1904-
Bush-Brown, L. Portraits of Philadelphia gardens, by L. Bush-
Brown and J. Bush-Brown. 1929.
Calvert, A. F. Daffodil growing for pleasure and profit. 1929.
Candolle, A. P. de. Plantes rares du jardin de Geneve. 1829.
Clements, F. E. Flower families and ancestors, by F. E. Clements
and E. S. Clements.
Cockburn, J. Letters of John Cockburn of Ormiston to his gar-
dener, 1727-1744, ed. by J. Colville. 1904.
Costantin, J. Atlas en couleur des orchidees cultivees.
Coste, H., abbe. Flore descriptive et illustree de la France, de la
Corse, et des contrees limitrophes. 1901-1906. 3v.
Cousins, H. H. Chemistry of the garden ; rev. ed. 1924.
Coventry, B. 0. Wild flowers of Kashmir (ser. 2). 1927.
Cran, M. The gardens of Good Hope. 1927.
Creevey, Mrs. C. A. Harper's guide to the wild flowers. 1912.
Croy, M. S. 1000 hints on flowers and birds. 1917.
Cuthbertson, W. Ten months abroad, by Mr. and Mrs. W. Cuth-
Delacroix, G. Maladies des plantes cultivees : maladies para-
sitaires; 3e ed. par A. Maublanc. 1926.
Delacroix, G. Maladies des plantes cultivees: maladies non para-
Dochnahl, F. J. Bibliotheca hortensis . . . 1750-1860. 1861.
Downing, A. J. The fruits and fruit trees of America; 2d re-
vision by C. Downing. 1900.
Drewitt, F. D. The romance of the Apothecaries' garden at Chel-
sea; 3d ed. 1928.
Duchesne, A. N. fils. Histoire naturelle des fraisiers. 1766.
Du Pas, Crispin. Hortus floridus, the first book contayninge a
very lively & true description of the flowers of the Springe . . .
preface by E. S. Rohde, and calligraphy by M. Shipton. 1928.
Edwardes-Ker, D. R. The chemistry of the garden: a course of
practical work for teachers and students of horticulture, garden-
ing, and rural science. 1914.
Estienne, C. S. Nouvelle instruction pour connoistre les bons
fruits; 2e. ed. 1687.
Farrington, E. I. The span of one hundred years. 1929. (Manu-
Fox, H. M. Patio gardens. 1929.
78 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
France. Societe nationale d'horticulture. Les meilleurs fruits au
debut du xxe siecle. 1907.
France. Societe pomologique. Catalogue descriptif des fruits
adoptes par le congres pomologique. 1927.
Free, M. Flowers of winter indoors and out. 1917.
Gerth Van Wijk, H. L. A dictionary of plant names. 1911-1916.
Gilman, A. Practical bee-breeding. 1929.
Guptill, A. L. Drawing with pen and ink and a word concerning
the brush. 1928.
Hall, Sir A. D. Book of the tulip. 1929.
Hamblin, S. F. American rock gardens. 1929.
Handasyde, pseud. Four gardens [by Emily H. Buchanan] 1927.
Hatton, R. G. The craftsman's plant-book. 1909.
Hedrick, U. P. Vegetables of New York, v.l, part 1. 1928.
Henslow, G. Uses of British plants traced from antiquity to the
present day. 1905.
Higgins, M. M. Little gardens for boys and girls. 1910.
Hort, Sir A. The unconventional garden. 1928. '
Hubbard, H. V. An introduction to the study of landscape de-
sign; rev.ed. by H. V. Hubbard and T. Kimball. 1929.
Hubbard, H. V. Landscape architecture, a comprehensive classifi-
cation scheme, by H. V. Hubbard and T. Kimball. 1920.
Hume, H. H. Gardening in the lower South. 1929.
Hunger, F. W. T. Charles de l'Escluse (Carolus Clusius), Neder-
landsch kruidkundige> 1526-1609. 1927.
Index generalis; the yearbook of the universities, libraries . . .
learned societies. 1923-1924.
Index Londinensis to illustrations of flowering plants, ferns and
fern allies . . . compiled . . . under the auspices of the Royal
Horticultural Society of London ... by O. Stapf, v.l. 1929.
International congress of plant sciences. Proceedings, v.l. 1929.
Jekyll, G. Children and gardens. 1908.
John Crerar Library, Chicago, comp. A list of books on the his-
tory of industry and industrial arts, prepared by A. G. S.
Johnson, C. W. Abhandlung iiber die anwendung des kochsalzes
auf den feld- und gartenbau . . . aus dem Englischen der zweiten
ausgabe ubersetzt und einer vorrede begleitst von C. K. 1825.
Joret, C. Les plantes dans l'antiquite et au moyen age. 1897-
King, Mrs. F. The gardener's colour book, by Mrs. F. King and
J. Fothergill. 1929.
LIBRARY ACCESSIONS 79
Laurie, A. Fertilizers for greenhouse and garden crops, by A.
Laurie and J. B. Edmond. 1929.
Leyel, Mrs. C. F. The magic of herbs : a modern book of secrets.
Lick, D. E. Plant names and plant lore among the Pennsylvania
Germans, by D. E. Lick and T. R. Brendle. 1927.
Lincoln, Mrs. A. H. Familiar lectures on botany; 4th ed. rev. and
Lyons, A. B. Plant names, scientific and popular. 1900.
Maeterlinck, M. Children's life of the bee. 1927.
Mairs, T. I. Some. Pennsylvania pioneers in agricultural science.
Maxon, W. R. Ferns as a hobby.
Maxwell, D. F. The low road, hardy heathers and heather gar-
Meisel, M. A bibliography of American natural history, v.3. 1929.
Mellen, I. Roof gardening. 1929.
Metcalf, C. L. Destructive and useful insects, their habits and
control, by C. L. Metcalf and W. P. Flint. 1928.
Micheli, M. Le jardin du Crest. 1896.
Millardet, A. Histoire des principales varietes et especes de
vignes d'origine americaine qui resistent au Phylloxera. 1885.
Monardes, N. Joyfull newes out of the newe found worlde . . .
Englished by J. Frampton, merchant, anno 1577, with an intro-
duction by S. Gaselee. 1925. 2v.
Moore, B. Vegetation of Mount Desert Island, by B. Moore and
N. Taylor. 1928. Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Memoirs, v.3)
Morris, F. Our wild orchids, trails and portraits, by F. Morris and
E. A. Eames. 1929.
Neill, P. Fruit, flower and kitchen garden; 4th ed. rev. and imp.
Nissley, C. H. Starting early vegetables and flowering plants under
Northend, M. H. Garden ornaments. 1916.
Norton, J. B. S. Favorite dahlias of 1928. 1929.
Nouvelle instruction facile pour la culture des figuiers. 1692.
Palmer, E. Food products of the North American Indians. 1870.
Piemonte. ft. Societa orto-agricola. Esposizione intern azionale
d'orticoltura. Cinquantenario della . . . Societa. Catalogo gen-
erale, Elenco delle premiazioni. 1904.
Pitkin, H. W. Osage orange (Madura), the hedge plant of America.
Preston, I. Garden lilies. 1929.
80 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY
Pulteney, R. Historical and biographical sketches of the progress of
botany in England from its origin to the introduction of the Lin-
nean system. 1790. 2v.
Purdy, C. A revision of the genus Calochortus. 1901. (Proceed-
ings of California Academy of Sciences, 3rd series, Botany, v. 2,
Pyle, R. How to grow roses ; 17th ed. enl. and entirely rewritten by
R. Pyle, J. H. McFarland and G. A. Stevens. 1930.
Quackenbush, A. T. A. Perennials of flowerland. 1929.
Recknagel, A. B. Forestry ... by A. B. Recknagel and S. N.
Rexford, E. E. Amateur gardencraft. 1912.
Rexford, E. E. Four seasons in the garden. 1907.
Reynolds, P. K. The banana, its history, cultivation, and place
among staple foods. 1927.
Roberts, E. A. American plants for American gardens, by E. A.
Roberts and E. Rehmann. 1929.
Roberts, H. F. Plant hybridizers before Mendel. 1929.
Rockwell, F. F. Dahlias. 1929.
Rockwell, F. F. Lawns. 1929.
Rohde, E. S. Garden craft in the Bible and other essays. 1927.
Root, A. I. The ABC and XYZ of bee culture. 1920.
Rosendahl, C. O. Trees and shrubs of Minnesota, by C. O. Rosen-
dahl and F. K. Butters. 1928.
Rothamsted Experimental Station. Library. Catalogue of the
printed books on agriculture published between 1471 and 1840.
Royal Horticultural Society. Classified list of daffodil names. 1929.
Royal Horticultural Society. Tentative list of tulip names. 1929.
Royal Scottish Arboricultural Society. Library regulations and cat-
Sand, A. W. W. A study of Pogoniris varieties. 1925.
Sandhack, H. A. Dahlien und gladiolen, ihre beschreibung, kultur
und ziichtung. 1927.
Scheepers, J., Inc. Beauty from bulbs. 1929.
Scheepers, J., Inc. Index to Beauty from bulbs. 1929.
Seaver, F. J. The North American cup-fungi. 1928.
Small, J. K. Some American species of iris. 192 — . (Addisonia,
v. 9, no. 4, v. 12 no. 1.)
Sowerby, J. English botany, supplement, v. 5. 1863-1866.
Temple, A. A. Flowers and trees of Palestine. 1929.
Thompson, H. C. Sweet potato production and handling. 1929.
Thomson, S. Thomsonian materia medica; or, Botanic family phy-
sician; ed. 13. 1841.
LIBRARY ACCESSIONS 81
Tilli, M. A. Catalogus plantarum horti Pisani. 1723.
True, A. C. History of agricultural education in the United States,
Tubbs, E. M. The New Hampshire kitchen, fruit, and floral gar-
United States catalog, books in print January 1, 1928. 1928.
Van Dyke, H. Songs out of doors. 1927.
Villiers- Stuart, C. Spanish gardens, their history, types and fea-
Walcott, M. V. North American wild flowers, v. 4 and 5. 1929.
Walter, F. K. Abbreviations and technical terms used in book cata-
logues and in bibliographies. 1919.
Warner, R. Dutch and Flemish fruit and flower painters of the 17th
and 18th centuries. 1928.
Weaver, J. E. Plant ecology, by J. E. Weaver and F. E. Clements.
Wherry, E. T. Wild flowers of Mt. Desert Island, Maine. 1928.
Wiepking-Jurgensmann, H. F. Garten und Haus: I. Das haus in
der landschaft. 1927.
Wilkinson, A. E. Practical vegetable culture. 1929.
Williams, B. S. Select ferns and lycopods, British and exotic . . .
accompanied by directions for their management in the tropical,
temperate, and hardy fernery ; ed. 2. 1873.
Wilson, A. Insects and their control. 1929.
Wilson, E. H. China, mother of gardens. 1929.
Wilson, E. H. Lilies of eastern Asia, a monograph. 1929.
Wilson, J. D. Measurements and interpretation of the water-supply-
ing power of the soil with special reference to lawn grasses and
some other plants. 1928.
Wright, R. The gardener's bed-book. 1929.
Wright, R. Truly rural. 1922.
Periodicals Currently Received, 1929
•Adelaide, South Australia. Botanic Garden. Report.
*Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales. Sidney.
*Agricultural Index. New York.
American Bee Journal. Hamilton, 111.
*American Botanist. Joliet, 111.
*American Carnation Society. Proceedings. St. Louis.
•American Dahlia Society. Bulletin. New Haven.
*American Delphinium Society. Bulletin. Portland, Ore.
•American Fern Journal. Auburndale, Mass.
American Florist. Chicago.
*American Forests and Forest Life. Washington, D. C.
•American Fruit Grower Magazine. Chicago.
*American Home. Garden City, N. Y.
•American Iris Society. Bulletin. Lancaster, Pa.
•American Landscape Architect. Chicago.
*American Nut Journal. Rochester, N. Y.
*American Peony Society. Bulletin. St. Paul, Minn.
American Potato Journal. East Lansing, Mich.
American Produce Grower. Chicago.
•American Rose Annual. Harrisburg, Pa.
•American Society for Horticultural Science. Proceedings. Geneva,
*Les Amis des Roses. Lyon, France.
*Annals of Botany. London.
*Anvers. Societe Royale d'Horticulture et d' Agriculture. Bulletin.
•Arnold Arboretum. Bulletin of Popular Information. Boston.
*Arnold Arboretum. Journal. Boston.
Aube. Societe Horticole, Vigeronne et Forestiere. Annales. Troyes,
Beautiful Florida. Winter Park, Fla.
•Belgique. Societe Royale de Botanique. Bulletin. Brussels.
•Better Flowers. Portland, Ore.
•Better Fruit. Portland, Ore.
Better Homes and Gardens. Des Moines, Iowa.
•Botanical Society of Edinburgh. Transactions and Proceedings.
•Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research. Contributions.
Yonkers, N. Y.
•Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research. Professional Pa-
pers. Yonkers, N. Y.
♦British Gladiolus Society. Gladiolus Annual. Colchester, Eng,
*Periodicals kept permanently.
PERIODICALS CURRENTLY RECEIVED, 1929 83
British Guiana. Board of Agriculture. Journal. Georgetown.
*Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Leaflets. Brooklyn, N. Y.
*Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Record. Brooklyn, N. Y.
*Bruxelles. Jardin Botanique de l'Etat. Bulletin.
*Bryologist. New York.
* California Avocado Association. Yearbook. Los Angeles.
* California Department of Agriculture. Bulletin. Sacramento.
* California Garden. Point Loma, Calif.
*California University. Publications in Botany. Berkeley.
* Canadian Entomologist. Guelph, Ont.
* Canadian Florist. Peterboro, Ont.
* Canadian Gladiolus Society. Bulletin. Hamilton, Ont.
* Canadian Horticulturist. Peterboro, Ont.
*Le Chrysantheme. Lyon, France.
Cornell Countryman. Ithaca, N. Y.
Country Life. Garden City, N. Y.
* Curtis' s Botanical Magazine. London.
*Dahlia Society of New England. Bulletin. New Bedford, Mass.
*Dahlia Society of San Francisco. California Dahlia News. San
*Desert. Pasadena, Calif.
*Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Journal. Chapel Hill, N. C.
Epernay. Societe d'Horticulture et de Viticulture. Bulletin.
*Experiment Station Record. Washington, D. C.
Farm Journal. Philadelphia.
* Florists Exchange. New York.
*Florists , Review. Chicago.
*Flower Garden. Honeybrook, Pa.
* Flower Grower. Calcium, N. Y.
*Forest Leaves. Philadelphia.
*France. Societe Nationale d'Horticulture. Bulletin. Paris.
* Fruit World of Australasia. Victoria, N. S. W.
*Fruits and Gardens. Zeeland, Mich.
*Garden Club. Des Moines, Iowa.
* Garden Club of America. Bulletin. New York.
*Garden Gossip. Woodberry Forest, Va.
*Garden Life. St. Louis.
*Garden Lover. Melbourne, Australia.
*Gardeners' Chronicle. London.
•Gardeners' Chronicle (of America). New York.
* Gardening Illustrated. London.
*Periodicals kept permanently.
84 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
*Gartenkunst. Frankfurt, Germany.
*Geisenheimer Mitteilungen iiber Obst- und Gartenbau. Wiesbaden,
* Gladiolus Review. Rochester, N. Y.
*Gray Herbarium. Contributions. Cambridge, Mass.
* Great Britain. Ministry of Agriculture. Journal. London.
Guide to Nature. Sound Beach, Conn.
*Hartford, Conn. Board of Park Commissioners. Annual Report.
*Haute-Garonne. Societe d'Horticulture. Annales.
*Home Acres. New York.
*Hoosier Horticulture. Lafayette, Ind.
Horizons. Ames, Iowa.
*L'Horticulteur Chalonnaise. Chalon, France,
horticultural Society of New York. Yearbook. New York.
* Horticulture. Boston.
*L'Horticulture Frangaise. Paris.
* House and Garden. New York.
House Beautiful. Boston.
*Indiana Academy of Science. Proceedings. Indianapolis.
*Indiana Horticultural Society. Transactions. Indianapolis.
international Review of Agriculture. Rome.
*Iowa State Horticultural Society. Transactions. Des Moines.
*Ireland. Department of Lands and Agriculture. Journal. Dublin.
*Japanese Horticultural Society. Journal. Tokyo.
* Journal of Agricultural Research. Washington, D. C.
* Journal of Botany, British and Foreign. London.
*Journal of Economic Entomology. Geneva, N. Y.
*Journal of Forestry. Washington, D. C.
Journal of the Market Garden Field Station. Waltham, Mass.
*Journal of Pomology and Horticultural Science. London.
* Kansas Gardens. McPherson, Kan.
•Landscape Architecture. Boston.
*Linnean Society. Journal. Botany. London.
*Lyon-Horticole et Horticulture Nouvelle Reunis. Lyon, France.
*Market Growers Journal. Louisville, Ky.
*Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Yearbook. Boston.
*Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters. Papers. Ann
•Michigan State Horticultural Society. Annual Report. Lansing.
•Minnesota Horticulturist. St. Paul.
*Periodicals kept permanently.
PERIODICALS CURRENTLY RECEIVED, 1929 85
*Missouri Botanical Garden. Annals. St. Louis.
*Missouri Botanical Garden. Bulletin. St. Louis.
*Mollers Deutsche Gartner-Zeitung. Berlin.
*Montreal. Universite. Laboratoire de Botanique. Contributions.
*Morton Arboretum. Bulletin of Popular Information. Lisle, 111.
*Mycologia. Lancaster, Pa.
*National Carnation and Picotee Society. Annual Report and Year-
book. Colchester, England.
*Kational Horticultural Magazine. Washington, D. C.
*National Nurseryman. Hatboro, Pa.
*National Pecan Exchange News. Albany, Ga.
National Plant, Flower and Fruit Guild Magazine. New York.
Nature - Garden Guide. New York.
*New England Gladiolus Society. Yearbook. Boston.
New England Homestead. Springfield, Mass.
*New Flora and Silva. London.
*New Jersey Dahlia News. New Brunswick, N. J.
*New York Botanical Garden. Bulletin. New York.
*New York Botanical Garden. Journal. New York.
*Le Nord Horticole. Lille, France.
*Nurseryman. Des Moines, Iowa.
*Onze Tuinen. Amsterdam.
* Orchid Review. London.
* Orleans. Societe d'Horticulture d'Orleans et du Loiret. Bulletin.
Parks and Recreation. Tulsa, Okla.
*Le Petit Jardin. Paris.
Philippine Agricultural Review. Manila, P. I.
*La Pomologie Franchise. Versailles.
Progressive Farmer and Farm Woman. Memphis, Tenn.
* Quarterly Journal of Forestry. London.
Revista del Litoral. Buenos Aires.
*Revue des Eaux et Forets. Paris.
*Revue Horticole. Paris.
* Rhode Island Horticultural Society. Premium Lists. Providence.
*Rio de Janeiro. Museu Nacional. Archivos. Rio de Janeiro.
Rio de Janeiro. Museu Nacional. Boletim. Rio de Janeiro.
*Royal Horticultural Society. Journal. London.
Rural Digest. Rochester, N. Y.
*Rural New Yorker. New York.
*San Diego Rosarian. San Diego, Calif.
*Scottish Forestry Journal. Edinburgh.
*Periodicals kept permanently.
86 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
*Seed World. New York.
* Smithsonian Institution. Annual Report. Washington, D. C.
* South African Gardening and Country Life. Cape Town, South
* Southern Florist and Nurseryman. Fort Worth, Texas.
*Syracuse Rose Society. Quarterly. Syracuse, N. Y.
* Tennessee State Horticultural Society. Annual Convention. Pro-
ceedings. Nashville, Tenn.
*Torrey Botanical Club. Bulletin. Lancaster, Pa.
*Torreya. Lancaster, Pa.
*Toscana. Reale Societa di Orticultura. Bulletino. Florence.
*La Tribune Horticole. Brussels.
Tropical Agriculture. Trinidad, West Indies.
Tropical Home and Garden. Miami Beach, Fla.
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Crops and Markets. Monthly
Supplement. Washington, D. C.
*U. S. Department of Agriculture. Yearbook. Washington, D. C.
*U. S. National Herbarium. Contributions. Washington, D. C.
Victoria. Department of Agriculture. Journal. Melbourne,
*Wild Flower. Cincinnati, Ohio.
*Wisconsin Horticulture. Madison, Wis.
* Worcester County Horticultural Society. Transactions. Worces-
*Your Garden. Cleveland, Ohio.
*Zeitschrift fur Obst-, Wein- und Gartenbau. Dresden, Germany.
*Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. Stuttgart,
* Periodicals kept permanently.
Benevolent Fraternity Fruit and
At the expiration of the 61st year of the Benevolent Frater-
nity Fruit and Flower Mission, and the fifth season that its
headquarters have been under the hospitable roof of Horti-
cultural Hall, it again desires to express its sincere thanks to
the Trustees of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, espe-
cially for the friendly co-operation of their Secretary.
During 1929 many new opportunities for service have pre-
sented themselves and the Mission has gained new friends.
On June 1st the four centres — South Bay Union and Robert
Gould Shaw House in the South End of the city ; North End
Union in the North End; and Bulfinch Place Church in the
West End — were opened as usual to take care of the organized
hamper work which has been carried on continuously since
1869 during the 18 weeks of the Summer.
Three hundred and eighty-eight hampers, filled with flowers,
fruits and vegetables, were received at the centres.
These hampers were packed by the Garden Clubs of
Duxbury, Wayland and Groton; the Lend-a-Hand Clubs of
Arlington and Lynn; the "Women's Associations of the Fed-
eration of Churches of Medford, Medford Hillside and West
Medford; the Women's Clubs of Marshfield Hills, Scituate
and Stoneham ; and individual organizations in Weston, Con-
cord, Lincoln, Winchester, Marblehead and Needham. Com-
munity hampers came from Sharon, Canton and Westborough,
the Lyman School for Boys taking charge of the filling and
sending of the hamper one week. Mrs. Galen L. Stone sent
regularly flowers from her beautiful gardens in Marion ; Mrs.
Lester Leland sent crates of vegetables and flowers from Man-
chester ; Mrs. Alanson Bigelow, Jr. had charge of the Cohasset
hampers and from Centreville came a hamper packed by Mrs.
Harry A. Wheeler.
In addition to this work of the centres our basement head-
quarters in Horticultural Hall have been filled on many occa-
sions with the contributions brought in by interested friends.
Our committee has distributed the exhibits after the flower
shows and the Mission has been very fortunate in being able
to send out quantities of exquisite Peonies and Gladioli when
88 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
these flowers were at their best, the surplus blossoms of the
exhibitors before the opening of the shows.
The extreme heat of June brought thousands of Roses and
bunches of Sweet Peas from the growers of New England
during the days of the flooded market at the Flower Exchange.
For the third time Mayor Nichols sent the Pansy plants
from the Public Gardens.
Our gay little baskets at Thanksgiving and Christmas
carried holiday cheer to our long list of sick and lonely
In several localities the Girl Scouts and Boy Scouts have
given valuable assistance, sending baskets of Daisies and
Christmas stockings or collecting the contributions for the
If garden growers could realize what a few flowers mean
in the lives of those with whom we come in contact, people
of all nationalities and all creeds, the basement room of the
Benevolent Fraternity Fruit and Flower Mission would
receive contributions every morning throughout the entire
The co-operation of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society
makes it possible to increase constantly our field of service.
Emily I. Elliott, Executive Secretary.
OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES
PRESENTED AT THE
INAUGURAL MEETING JANUARY 13, 1930
WITH A LIST OF MEMBERS
ADMITTED IN 1929
The Inaugural Meeting
The inaugural meeting was held at Horticultural Hall on
Monday, January 13, with the President, Mr. Albert C.
Burrage, in the chair.
The President's Address
Ladies and Gentlemen, Members of the Massachusetts Horti-
cultural Society : — Thomas Roland is no more. The great
stabilizer of this Society has passed on; our helmsman has
gone. We deeply mourn our loss. His reputation will endure
as long as this Society lasts, through the annual award of the
Thomas Roland Gold Medal, named for him, which he was the
first to receive, and which is given only for skill in horticul-
ture. May we, somehow, somewhere, sometime, find another
This is a time to report and not to talk. We have just
finished our first century and are on the threshold of another.
We are proud of our achievements. I intended to point to
them with great pride — but a strange thing has happened.
This morning, while making notes for this meeting, I had
two legal notices served on me, both peremptory. One was a
rather rough communication from the chairmen of the differ-
ent committees who are to make their reports today on the
work for the past year. They warned me that if I encroached
upon their grounds and said one word about what was done
last year, either of exhibitions, earnings, library accessions,
increase of members, development of the magazine, or any-
thing else concerning the work done by the Society in 1929,
they would all go on strike and refuse to make any reports,
and this meeting would be a fizzle. The other was a rather
polite, but nevertheless emphatic, letter from Mr. Farrington
that I should say nothing about the previous 99 years of the
Society for that would probably seriously interfere with the
sale of the History of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society,
which he is selling for $3 a copy, which he advertises at cost,
and of which he hopes to sell perhaps seven copies today at
the table outside the entrance doors. He says that if I talk
now of the past he may not sell over two copies.
So here I am, confronted with a serious situation — pro-
hibited from referring to the past (of which I know but little ;
92 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
in fact, just a tenth — for that is the number of years I have
been a Trustee), and driven to talk about the future, about
which I know absolutely nothing. You realize my limitations,
thus handicapped. What use is it for me to try to hold your
attention. I had prepared to tell you of the really great work
done for this Society in the past by such leaders as Dearborn,
Wilder, Parkman, Hayes, Sargent, Hunnewell and Roland,
and the great inspiration of their names and lives. I am
barred, however ; I cannot even hint to you that this Society
may have gained over a hundred members a month last year,
or say a word about the size of its treasury or how many
thousands of dollars Horticulture has made, the managers of
which debate every month as to whether they shall double the
advertising rates or double the size of the paper and triple
the advertising rates — knowing that this commanding posi-
tion is largely due to its clientele, the members of the three
largest horticultural societies in America — the Massachusetts,
New York and Pennsylvania, — a vast majority of whom read
the paper throughout, advertisements and all.
All that these respected and respectable gentlemen wish me
to say is that this Society is a success, and is growing in
numbers, strength and influence.
Let us reflect upon this splendid past and this glowing
present, and see if it does not tell us something of the future.
The founders of this Society, few in number when the country
was young and poor, and nurserymen, seedsmen and importers
were scarce, surely laid a solid foundation and built well.
They established traditions which are still maintained and
around which we love to cluster. Our leaders have carried on
these traditions and given us a reputation which stretches
far and wide and is an inspiration to our sister societies
throughout the country, as it is to us. This accounts for our
strength, both in building, in Library and in membership —
far the greatest of any horticultural society in this country.
It is not possible that there should be 7,000 subscribers to
our magazine in Massachusetts, unless there are more than
that number of people in this community who enjoy horti-
culture, horticultural talks and horticultural writings, and
who want to see and know about the best things horticulture
can produce here and elsewhere.
INAUGURAL MEETING 93
Some of us, during the past ten years that I have been a
Trustee, have had one goal in mind: to live to see the day
when it would be acknowledged that this Society is truly
representative, not only of the district in which it is situated,
but also of the principal horticultural interests of the state;
when it would be acknowledged that the Society is free from
clique-ism and, as far as humanly possible, from favoritism ;
and when the rank and file would instinctively feel that in
schedule and awards it stood, above all else, for a fair deal —
that six peony blossoms or a plate of 48 strawberries, if they
showed superior culture, might win the President's Cup for
the most meritorious exhibit in the show, whether large or
small, and whether of flowers, fruits or vegetables, even against
very large exhibits of the President and other Trustees.
What does our great endowment mean ? What do our large
numbers mean? What does this history of a century mean?
It means just this : that we shall get, in the future, what we
hope for and what we work for — and not much more.
I am not sure that I shall be allowed to thank, as I really
want to for their arduous labors, those who, like the Secretary,
the Librarian, Mrs. Bayard Thayer, Mr. Ernest H. Wilson,
Mr. Nathaniel T. Kidder and Mr. John S. Ames, the Com-
mittees and the Judges, have contributed so largely to the
success of this Society, especially during the past year.
In the past few years the Massachusetts Horticultural
Society has not favored drives for endowments or buildings,
and it has not joined in the mad rush for millions which so
many of our American institutions, through highly paid pro-
fessional "drive" experts, have — in common parlance — "put
over" ; but it would be helpful if, by the unsolicited, voluntary
gifts of members who believe in the work of this Society, our
cash endowment, now — at today's valuation — about $750,000,
could be at least $1,000,000, which, at five per cent, average
yield, would furnish an income of $50,000.
To ask one to act as Committeeman or Judge at show after
show and year after year is taxing friendship and loyalty to
the limit, and to do so for ten or fifteen years is stretching
this limit too far. They are honorable positions, and we appre-
ciate that fact when we appoint persons to them ; but we also
know that there are two sides to the problem. Constant attend-
94 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
ance is not always easy without some neglect of business- or
profession. We are grateful to those who have served, but,
just as we have altered our by-laws to force into the Board
some new blood each year — as seen by the election of Mr.
Hunnewell, Mr. Gardner and Mr. Stone, so we ought to see,
somehow, that the same plan will be applied to Committees
and Judges, lest we fall into ruts and discourage the younger
generation who also wish honors and can do work.
It may be that, after thoughtful study, conference and
careful consideration by a special committee of the Trustees,
it will be possible to formulate, and adopt by common consent,
a "Code of Ethics" and a "Roll of Honor," which will create
a closer relationship and friendliness between employers and
gardeners, between buyers and sellers of plants and garden
supplies — by the better reward of highly skilled gardeners,
the prevention of the payment of improper commissions and
greater exactness in the description of plants and seeds. We
should thus inspire greater confidence and respect between all
those interested in any way in horticulture, greater use and
more sales, with greater profits and greater employment for
skilled gardeners at higher wages, all of which would be good
for horticulture. I do not mean ordinary unskilled labor, but
skilled labor, applied with greater intelligence. In these days
of intensity in all lines, when there are rapidly moving aero-
planes in the air and automobiles on the earth, it is not easy
to get a new crop of gardeners, and especially those who will
study and work overtime to educate themselves to be skilled.
When they do become skilled, we must give them greater
Under the bylaws, it is the duty of the President to make
suggestions concerning the affairs of the Society. Under these
circumstances, at the beginning of this— the last year of my
service as President, and as the result of ten years' experience
as a Trustee, I wish, instead of making suggestions, to express
my hopes— and with your permission I shall do so :
I hope for the day when every Committeeman will be
present at the beginning of the meeting, and not delay his
I hope for the day when every Trustee, unless prevented by
INAUGURAL MEETING 95
illness, will attend every meeting of the Board of Trustees
as readily as he now pays $100 at the call of the President.
I hope for the day when our Board of Trustees will be
increased, so that every important horticultural interest will
be represented among its members, and it will be more repre-
sentative than it now is, of the western and central parts of
I hope for the day when all our by-laws, rules and regula-
tions and schedules will be lived up to in both letter and spirit
by our Trustees, Judges, Committees, Secretary and President.
I hope for the day when the vegetable and fruit growers
will show their best products — as they did 50 years ago, and
when, after such showing, they will feel repaid for coming,
both by the visitors and by the prizes they win.
I hope for the day when each Spring we shall see great
clusters of blooms of Flowering Crabs, covering acres along
the railroads of this state.
I hope for the day when the Secretary will give at least 24
hours' notice of every meeting of a committee, and at least
seven days' notice of every meeting of the Trustees.
I hope for the day when Horticulture will have the courage
to refuse to print any advertisement or notice of any horti-
cultural product or plant which its Editors believe exag-
gerated, untrue or misleading.
I hope for the day when our lectures will be as frequent
and as good as those of any other horticultural society in the
land, and when the hall in which they are given will be as
regularly filled at these lectures as in that where the Lowell
Institute lectures are given.
I hope for the day when the writers of our thoughtful and
helpful articles in Horticulture will be as highly paid as the
authors of such articles by any other horticultural magazine
in the world.
I hope for the day when every exhibitor, in simple justice
to his co-exhibitors, to the Judges and to the Society, will have
his exhibits absolutely ready at the hour set for the clearing
of the hall, so that exhibits can be seen while they are per-
I hope for the day, soon, when we shall have established a
community of interests, or temporary partnerships, with the
96 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
garden clubs of Massachusetts which now exist, as well as
with those which are to come in great numbers, whereby we
can, in return for their support, grant them facilities which
but few can possess at home for a long time to come, and when
there can be an enlargement of that splendid co-operation
which was so helpful at the Centennial Exhibition.
I hope for the day, very soon, when we shall have constantly
on the road in the open season, under an assistant librarian,
a traveling horticultural library of the Massachusetts Horti-
cultural Society, in a large, slow, automobile truck containing
a really large, live, working and consulting library of horti-
cultural, garden and reference books, going from one town
to another of this state where such libraries do not and cannot
exist, stopping here and there for a few days to give people
an opportunity to consult the library.
Albert C. Burbage, President.
Report of the Secretary
The great Spring Exhibition in March was the outstanding
feature of this Society's centennial year. The success of this
exhibition far exceeded the expectations of the most sanguine
member, with a total attendance of 117,000, which was larger
than that recorded at any previous show in this country. The
profits were large enough so that the Trustees were able to
establish a $30,000 fund to insure against loss at any future
shows at which an admission fee is charged. The Autumn Show
was less successful in point of receipts, there being a small
deficit, which was made up from the regular income of the
One hundred special Centennial Medals were struck from a
die modelled by John Paramino of Boston. Fifty-six were
awarded at the exhibitions and 38 outside the exhibitions. The
outside awards covered a wide scope and were calculated to
show the broad interest of the Society in all phases of horti-
culture as well as in all parts of the state.
Mr. Albert C. Burr age entered upon his ninth term as
President at the beginning of the year and presided at every
meeting of the Trustees except two, when he was in California.
At the February meeting, at which Mr. Burrage was absent,
INAUGURAL MEETING 97
Mr. E. H. Wilson moved that the first Centennial Gold Medal
be awarded to the President, and it was so voted, the medal
being given to Mr. Burrage at a dinner held at the Algonquin
Club on the evening of March 19.
At the June meeting it was voted to present an amendment
to the Society for action at the annual meeting. The purpose
of this amendment was to consolidate the special medal com-
mittees, so that one committee shall recommend the award of
the George Robert White Medal, the Thomas Roland Medal
and the Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal. This amendment
was passed at the annual meeting in November. Committees
were also appointed to consider the future policy of the
exhibitions and the matter of awards to gardeners. These
committees, however, have not yet made their reports.
Mrs. Homer Gage, Chairman of the Garden Committee, re-
ported in September that her committee recommended the
following awards: —
A gold medal to Mrs. Oustavus D. Parker, for her estate
A silver medal to Mr. and Mrs. Harry T. Hay ward, for
their estate at Franklin.
A silver medal to Mrs. L. Carteret Fenno, for her wild
garden at Rowley.
A bronze medal to Mr. and Mrs. Henry B. Pennell, Cohas-
set, for a small Italian garden.
Garden certificates to Mr. Paul Frost of Cambridge, and
to Mrs. Frederick Hussey of Salem.
At this meeting Mr. N. T. Kidder reported that Mr. Albert
Emerson Benson had completed the History of the Society.
The printing of the History was finished in December and
distribution was begun at once. A total of 2500 copies were
printed. This History is a handsome book of over 500 pages,
well illustrated, and covers the activities of the Society for its
first 100 years, besides giving much general information of
interest to horticulturists.
At the September meeting, the Jackson Dawson Medal was
awarded to Charles Sander, superintendent of the estate of
the late Charles S. Sargent, for his work in hybridizing woody
The December meeting was given over largely to a report
of the Executive Committee, which recommended the award
98 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
of many special medals. The George Robert White Medal of
Honor Committee also reported at this meeting, recommend-
ing that this medal be awarded to Miss Gertrude Jekyll of
England, and the report was adopted. At this meeting it was
also voted to award the Thomas Roland Medal to Mr. Frank
R. Pier son of Tarry town, N. Y.
Mr. Albert C. Burrage, Mr. E. H. Wilson and Mr. Fred A.
Wilson were appointed a committee to draw up resolutions
on the death of Mr. Thomas Roland.
Mr. Roland's untimely passing was perhaps the saddest
event of the year. He had been a Trustee for 21 years and
exceedingly active in the Society's work. Probably the success
of the great Centennial Spring Exhibition was due in a larger
measure to him than to any other one man. Special mention
should also be made of the death of Mr. T. D. Hatfield, who
was long connected with this Society and was for many years a
judge at its exhibitions. The necrology list for the year comes
almost with a shock, indicating that many of the older mem-
bers are rapidly passing. The number of deaths of life
members was 23 and of annual members 40, a total of 63.
Interest in the work of the Society has continued unabated
as is evidenced by the fact that 1244 new members were
admitted. Of this number 29 were life members. This is the
largest increase in the history of the Society, but it is mainly
among annual members. It is only fair to say that a study of
the History shows that in the olden days as many as 300 life
members were added in a single year. The Society needs a
greater number of life members than its present total of 829.
The total membership in good standing on January 1, 1930,
was 5,652 with a total of 407 members whose dues had not been
paid. Under the By-laws these persons will be considered
members for another year, making a grand total of 6,059.
Rentals in 1929 fell off because of the fact that the main
exhibition hall was used for a period of three months to store
trees furnished by the nurserymen for the Centennial Exhibi-
tion. Of course it was impossible to rent the hall during that
period. For the rest of the year the rentals were reasonably
good, bringing in a total of $6,079.28.
At the inaugural meeting, a gift of $1250 from the Presi-
dent, Mr. Albert C. Burrage, for the purpose of establishing
INAUGURAL MEETING 99
a porch competition was announced. It was stipulated that
the porch should be built during the year and should overlook
a garden. Late in 1929 the award, in the form of a medal, was
made to Mr. Ben Perley Poore Moseley of Ipswich, for a very
attractive porch overlooking both a rose garden and the
ocean, and surmounted by a miniature beacon light in order
that the garden might be enjoyed at night.
The following organizations held their meetings as usual in
Horticultural Hall: —
Federation of Garden Clubs of Massachusetts.
New England Wild Flower Preservation Society.
Benevolent Fruit and Flower Mission.
Boston Chapter of the National Association of Gardeners.
Gardeners' and Florists' Club of Boston.
New England Greenkeepers' Association.
Boston Micological Club.
New England Dahlia Society.
New England Gladiolus Society.
On May 4 the Field and Forest Club observed their 25th
anniversary by holding a dinner at the hall, and at their
request the Library was kept open during the evening. Various
garden clubs met there, and early in the year the Federated
Garden Clubs of Massachusetts conducted a series of lectures,
which were well-attended, in the lower lecture room.
Throughout the year the Society's outside associations,
with its kindred organizations in New York, Pennsylvania,
Worcester and other places, have been friendly and helpful.
There has been an exchange of medals with the New York and
Pennsylvania Societies, and this Society has noted with regret
the death of Mr. James Boyd, President of the Pennsylvania
Society. Among the medals awarded at the close of the year
were Centennial Gold Medals to Mr. T. A. Havemeyer and to
Mr. Frederick Newbold, President and Secretary of the New
York Society, and to Mr. John C. Wister, Secretary of the
The Secretary desires to express his appreciation of the
helpful co-operation which has been given him by the Trustees
and the members of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society
throughout the year.
E. I. Farrington, Secretary.
100 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Announcement of Gifts
"When the treasurer, Mr. John S. Ames, was called upon,
he said: Before submitting my report as treasurer it gives
me great pleasure to announce that Mr. Burrage, in addition
to his other generous gifts and his unexcelled orchid exhibits
in recent years, has given this Society another proof of his
deep interest in its future welfare, as shown in the following
Dear Mr. Ames — I hereby give $50,000 to the Massachusetts
Horticultural Society, in trust, to invest the same in sound conserva-
tive bonds and to use each year the income of $30,000 exclusively for
the purchase, for the Library of the Society, of books and pamphlets
relating directly or indirectly to horticulture, and to use the income
of the remainder exclusively for the purchase of a gold vase to be
awarded by the Trustees of the Society at a meeting in December
of each year to the most outstanding exhibit in any of the shows of
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society held during that year.
Albert C. Burrage.
Mr. Ames then read the following letter from Mr. William
Dear Sir — I have for some time desired to do something through
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society towards creating an in-
creased interest in the genus Lilium, certain varieties of which are
much cultivated in greenhouses while a much greater number are
good hardy garden plants. In order to accomplish this, a special
fund, the interest from which could be used for premiums, lectures,
or for recognizing in some suitable way the work of hybridists,
collectors, and also good culture in garden or greenhouse might be
of some benefit. The awards might be in the form of cash, medals, or
in whatever form the most good would be accomplished. I am very
glad to contribute for such a fund the sum of $2,500 which I trust
the trustees may see fit to accept.
William N. Craig.
The announcement of these gifts was warmly applauded
and on motion of Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby a rising vote of thanks
was given to Mr. Burrage and Mr. Craig.
INAUGURAL MEETING 101
Report of the Treasurer
BALANCE SHEET AS AT DECEMBER 31, 1929
Savings Bank Deposits $ 1,110.91
Bursar : In Banks 2,357.30
On Hand 10.00
Investments — Schedule No. 1 . 510,258.42
Real Estate 498,564.63
New Buildings , 1,456.79
Furniture and Exhibition Ware 7,982.61
Improvements and Additions to Building 12,797.04
Massachusetts Horticultural Society History 2,527.83
Sundry Funds — Schedule No. 2:
Unexpended Income 10,151.06
Life Membership Fees 16,544.00
Mt. Auburn Cemetery Fund 37,297.44
Income Account — Balance January 1, 1929 $13,126.68
Transferred to Funds Account 30,000.00
Profit and Loss (Capital) :
Balance — January 1, 1929 $63,284.90
Gain on Sale of Investments 365.00
102 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
PROFIT AND LOSS STATEMENT FOR YEAR ENDING
DECEMBER 31, 1029
Income from Investments and Bank Interest (less proportion
allocated to funds) $26,804.90
Sale of Lots— Mt. Auburn Cemetery 3,823.63
Centennial Exhibition— Spring, Schedule 9 $43>449.46
Centennial Exhibition — Autumn, Schedule 9 . . . . 1,441.51*
Library Catalogs 10.00
Membership Fees 9,766.00
Undelivered Prize Money 40.75
Total Income $88,928.07
Building Expense— Schedule 3 .$13,724.08
Library Appropriation — Schedule 4 1,891.48
Library Expense — Schedule 5 4,329.76
Office Expense— Schedule 6 18,478.60
Show Expense 1,635.89
Awards and Lectures :
Prizes in Excess of Funds $4,352.75
Prizes and Other Expenditures Paid from
Funds^Schedule 7 2,664.35
Medals and Certificates 2,511.70
Judges' Fees 410.00
Total Expenditures $50,248.31
Loss on Horticulture — Schedule 8 411.46*
Actual Profit for Year $38,268.30
Transferred to Principal for Show Fund 30 000.00
Balance Transferred to Income Account $ 8,268.30
INAUGUKAL MEETING 103
$ 5,000 American European Securities 5 1958 $ 5,000.00
10,000 American Tel. & Tel. Conv 4y 2 1933 8,396.00
4,000 American Tel. & Tel. Conv 4 1936 4,000.00
5,000 American Tel. & Tel. Conv 5 1946 4,973.75
20,000 Atlantic Refining Co 5 1937 19,940.00
8,000 Boston & Maine R. R. Reg'd 4y 2 1944 8,000.00
50,000 Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R 3y 2 1949 50,000.00
3,000 Chicago June. Rep. & Union Stock Yards 5 1940 2,824.50
15,000 Columbus Electric & Power 5 1954 14,700.00
10,000 Columbus Electric & Power 4y 2 1933 9,600.00
6,000 Commonwealth Edison Co 4y 2 1956 5,745.00
11,000 Consolidated Electric Co. G.S.F 5 1955 10,010.00
15,000 Fisk Rubber Co 5y 2 1931 14,737.50
15,000 Georgia Power Co 5 1967 14,550.00
15,000 Indianapolis Gas Co 5 1952 14,775.00
4,000 Interborough Rapid Transit Co 5 1966 3,920.00
20,000 Louisiana Power & Light Co. 1st 5 1957 19,200.00
10,000 Louisville & Nashville R. R 5 1931 9,920.00
5,000 N. E. Tel. & Tel. Co 5 1952 4,982.50
10,000 New Jersey Power & Light Co 5 1956 9,950.00
25,000 New South Wales, State of 5 1957 24,062.50
10,000 New York Central R. R. Co 5 2013 9,950.00
3,000 New York, Chicago, St. Louis R. R 6 1932 3,000.00
12,000 New York Power & Light 1st 4y 2 1967 11,490.00
3,000 Philadelphia Suburban Water Co 5 1955 2,955.00
11,300 Pere Marquette R. R. Co 5 1956 9,933.75
10,000 Public Utilities Corp 5y 2 1947 9,925.00
10,000 Puget Sound Power & Light Co 5y 2 1949 10,150.00
12,000 Pacific Tel. & Tel. Co 5 1937 11,670.00
15,000 Railway & Light Securities 5 1951 14,587.50
25,000 Shawinigan Water & Power Co 4V 2 1968 24,625.00
7,000 Shell Pipe Line Corp 5 1952 6,860.00
10,000 Southern California Tel. Co 5 1947 9,550.00
13,000 Southern Public Utilities Co 5 1943 11,862.50
5,000 Utah Power & Light Co 5 1944 4,900.00
5,000 Western Electric Co 5 1944 4,825.00
5,000 Western Union Tel. Co 5 1938 4,982.50
15,000 Yadkin River Power Co 5 1941 15,077.50
Total Bonds $425,630.50
104 massachusetts horticultural society
655 176 / 2 oo shares Electric Bond & Share Co.^j
2,726 shares General Electric Co. Special \~ $38,147.92
548 shares General Electric Co. Common J
500 shares Consolidated Gas Co. of New York Preferred . 46,480.00
Total Stocks $ 84,627.92
Total Bonds 425,630.50
Total Stocks and Bonds $510,258.42
Principal Income Total
Anonymous Fund $ 1,000.00 $ 1,000.00
Unrestricted Funds 15,000.00 15,000.00
Samuel Appleton Fund 1,000.00 1,000.00
Josiah Bradlee Fund 1,000.00 $ 50.00 1,050.00
Albert Cameron Burrage— Library . . . 30,000.00 30,000.00
Albert Cameron Burrage— Show 20,000.00 20,000.00
Albert Cameron Burrage 1,200.00 1,200.00
Albert Cameron Burrage— 1929 1,250.00 25.00* 1,225.00
John C. Chaffin Fund 1,000.00 20.89 1,020.89
Benjamin B. Davis Fund ." 500.00 59.00 559.00
Jackson Dawson Memorial Fund 3,227.00 364.03 3,591.03
Arthur F. Estabrook Legacy 47,500.00 47,500.00
Ida F. Estabrook Legacy 11,078.76 11,078.76
John S. Farlow Fund 2,500.00 1.27 2,501.27
John S. Farlow — Newton Horticultural
Society 2,900.42 336.00 3,236.42
Benjamin V. French Fund No. 1 500.00 45.00 545.00
No. 2 3,000.00 23.00 3,023.00
John AUen French Fund 5,000.00 45.61 5,045.61
John D. Williams French Fund 11,681.88 138.73 11,820.61
Henry A. Gane Memorial Fund 1,000.00 1,000.00
Francis Brown Hayes Bequest 189,904,54 189,904.54
Francis Brown Hayes Fund 10,000.00 4,800.00 14,800.00
H. H. Hunnewell Fund No. 1 500.00 130.50 630.50
No. 2 2,000.00 400.00 2,400.00
No. 3 1,500.00 171.50 1,671.50
John A. Lowell Fund 1,000.00 45.00 1,045.00
Theodore Lyman Fund No. 1 1,000.00 16.00 1,016.00
No. 2 10,000.00 386.50 10,386.50
Benjamin H. Pierce Fund 800.00 348.00 1,148.00
INAUGURAL MEETING 105
Thomas Roland 3,000.00 604.22 3,604.22
John Lewis Russell Fund 1,000.00 295.00 1,295.00
Show Fund 30,000.00 800.00 30,800.00
William J. Walker Fund 2,354.43 43.92 2,398.35
Levi Whitcomb Fund 500.00 1.00* 499.00
George Robert White Medal of Honor
Fund 10,000.00 1,035.89 11,035.89
Marshall P. Wilder Fund 1,000.00 17.00 1,017.00
$424,897.03 $10,151.06 $435,048.09
Books and Periodicals 784.23
Insurance $ 2.00
Stationery and Postage 73.25
Insurance $ 72.50
Bond Expense 90.00
106 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Stationery and Postage 1,525.75
Prizes and Other Expenditures Paid from Funds
Samuel Appleton Fund $ 75.00
Josiah Bradlee Fund 10.00
Albert C. Burrage Fund 1929 75.00
John C. Chaffin Fund 31.00
Benjamin B. Davis Fund 6.00
Jackson Dawson Memorial Fund 138.60
John S. Farlow Fund 113.37
John S. Farlow N. H. S. Fund 69.00
Benjamin V. French Fund No. 1 13.00
No. 2 142.00
John Allen French Fund 150.00
John D. Williams French Fund 449.07
Henry A. Gane Memorial Fund 80.00
H. H. Hunnewell Fund No. 2 75.00
No. 3 100.00
John A. Lowell Fund 31.00
Theodore Lyman Fund No. 1 49.00
No. 2 482.50
Thomas Roland 69.56
William J. Walker Fund 118.00
Levi Whitcomb Fund 34.00
George Robert White Medal of Honor Fund 302.25
Marshall P. Wilder Fund 51.00
CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION ANALYSIS
Cash Receipts $4,636.55
Deduct Expenses :
Printing . . $ 346.50
INAUGURAL MEETING 107
Cash Prizes 2,208.00
Loss on Autumn Show $1,441.51*
Transferred to Income $1,441.51*
Cash Receipts $84,415.93
Printing $ 3,275.33
Cash Prizes 3,819.50
Awards to Gardeners 965.00
Labor and Salaries 2,855.54
Stationery and Postage 121.83
Telephone and Telegraph 54.43
Profit on Spring Show $43,449.46
Transferred to Principal— Centennial Show Fund $30,000.00
Transferred to Income 13,449.46
Total Income $53,918.48
108 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Commissions and Discounts 8,034.45
Subscriptions Returned to Massachusetts Horticultural Society 4,023.97
Excess of Expenditures over Income $411.46*
Two new funds were established during the year 1929, as
A fund of $30,000, known as the Show Fund, was created
from the profits resulting from the Centennial Exhibition.
The income from this fund is to be used for show purposes.
The principal of the fund may be used to offset any deficit
resulting from a paid show. In such a case the fund will
remain idle until the interest on such fund has built it up to
A fund of $1250 has been received from Mr. Albert C.
Burrage, the income from which is to be used for medals for
porches overlooking gardens.
John S. Ames, Treasurer.
Report of the Committee on Lectures and Publications
With the Centennial Spring Show held in Mechanics Build-
ing, and the crowded condition of the halls of the Horticul-
tural Society at the Fall Show, it was thought necessary to
curtail the number of lectures. As a result of this policy three
only were given during the year 1929 : —
The Span of One Hundred Years, by E. I. Farrington,
Reginald Farrer as a Plant Hunter, by E. H. M. Cox,
The Iris, by Mrs. Ethel A. S. Peckham, June 15.
At the Peony Show, June 22 and 23, a motion-picture exhi-
bition of wild flower pictures was on display. The attendance
at the lectures was smaller than in former years, but it would
INAUGURAL MEETING 109
be unwise to attach any significance to this. The total cost
In February the sixth Year Book of the Society was issued.
In this appears the usual details concerning the principal
activities of the Society for the year.
It is pleasing to report that our magazine, Horticulture
Illustrated, has had another very successful year. On January
1, 1928, the paid circulation was 16,000, while the total number
of copies printed was 18,500. Today it has a paid subscription
of 18,629 and 20,000 numbers are printed. The volume of
advertising carried during 1929 amounted to $38,579.31, being
an increase of $9,170.57. The total receipts for the year
amounted to $55,724.9 and the expenses were $50,305.97, leav-
ing a balance on hand of $5,418.72. Your Committee on
Lectures and Publications has been able to hand over to the
general fund of the Society the sum of $4,023.97, being the
equivalent of 75 cents for each member of the Society, leaving
Horticulture with a balance on January 1, 1929, of $1,394.75.
Horticulture Illustrated is accepted as the leading amateur
garden paper in this country, and the frequent letters of
appreciation from all parts of the continent show how well
it is doing its part. More practical proof of its value lies in
the increased advertising ; nurserymen especially find its pages
a valuable medium for the sale of their goods. Members of the
Massachusetts Horticultural Society may well take pride in
the success and all-round educational value of the magazine.
The form of cover used for Horticulture has served its purpose
quite well, and it is now proposed to use a little color and to
keep the front page free of advertisements. Step by step we
hope to get the magazine dressed in a jacket worthy of the
paper and of the three societies whose special organ it is.
Thanks to the ability and sagacity of our Editor-Secretary,
Mr. E. I. Farrington, the work of the Committee on Lectures
and Publications is a simple and pleasant one, and the con-
tinued success of Horticulture, this Committee is able to
report, is the direct result of his energy and loyal work.
E. H. Wilson, Chairman.
110 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Report of the Committee on Prizes
The centennial year 1929 was fittingly enough a very busy
one, and one worthy of the Society. Never before had so many
valuable prizes, both in and without the schedule, been
awarded by the Society, nor had such magnificent exhibits
been presented to the Boston public. During the year seven
exhibitions were held, the Centennial Spring Exhibition in
Mechanics Building, and the other six in the Society's halls.
In its schedule for the centennial year the Society offered a
premium list of $16,630 in cash prizes. In addition a special
Centennial Medal was struck in gold, silver and bronze. The
Society offered a $1,000 gold cup at the Spring Exhibition and
a $500 gold cup at the Autumn Exhibition. The President
donated a gold cup to the Spring Exhibition and offered a
$100 silver cup at each of the other shows. Prizes in the form
of cups and plate to the value of $4,235 were donated by
friends of the Society, and 12 medals were offered by other
organizations. It will be seen, therefore, that the awards made
available were in keeping with the importance of the year.
The total monetary awards disbursed, including gratuities
of $1,740.50, amounted to $10,578.50, leaving a balance of
$6,057.50 in the account.
The Society's $1,000 gold cup was awarded to Mr. and Mrs.
Albert C. Burrage for their Tropical Garden at the Centen-
nial Spring Show. The $500 gold cup was also awarded to
them at the Fall Show for the Group of Stove and Greenhouse
Flowering and Foliage Plants. Four President's $100 silver
cups were awarded as follows : —
Peony Show, Mrs. Moses Taylor, display of Roses, June 22.
Gladiolus Show, Mrs. Bayard Thayer, display of Cam-
panula pyramidalis, Lilies and other plants, August 24.
Dahlia Show, Mrs. Moses Taylor, collection of vegetables',
Autumn Show, Mrs. Galen L. Stone, Winter-flowering
Begonias, October 29.
Outside the schedule, with the approval of the Prize Com-
mittee, eight Centennial gold medals, four large gold medals,
three Exhibition gold medals, 17 Centennial silver medals, 43
Society's silver medals, 15 Centennial bronze medals, and 17
INAUGURAL MEETING 111
ordinary bronze medals were awarded, besides the 12 medals
offered by other societies. At the Spring Exhibition 28 silver
cups and plates were awarded and three at the Fall Exhibi-
tion, making a total of 31. To new and meritorious exhibits five
first class certificates, 17 awards of merit, four votes of com-
mendation, and two cultural certificates were awarded. The
names of the recipients of these various honors will be printed
in detail in the Year Booh and it is therefore unnecessary to
enumerate them in this report.
The occasion, and the increase in the number and value of
prizes, brought out a greater number of exhibits than ever be-
fore. The Centennial Spring Exhibition, in magnitude, variety
and quality will go down in history as one of the greatest
events ever consummated in the horticultural world. Both in
attendance and in receipts it surpassed the record of any
horticultural exhibition ever held in this country. Amazing as
it may sound, the attendance exceeded that of any Boston
Automobile Show held in the same building. The exhibition
was more than a mere display of horticultural products ; it was
a vast and lovely picture. Where everything was fine it would
be invidious to make selections, and the awards tell their own
story. At each of the shows held in the halls of the Society the
exhibits were above the average and this was especially true
of the Autumn Show. Vegetables were well exhibited and were
of a higher quality than in previous years. The fruit exhibits,
however, left much to be desired, although the apples shown
at the Fall Show by Parker Brothers, and the grapes by Dr.
Walter G-. Kendall, were of the finest quality.
At the Centennial Spring Show special Judges were ap-
pointed for the different groups of exhibits. At the Autumn
Show there were special Judges for the nurserymen's classes.
At all the shows there has been virtually no dissatisfaction
with the decisions made, and this, in itself, is a compliment to
the fairness and ability of the Judges. The Society's Judges
of flowers, fruits and vegetables have handled the increased
volume of work during the year most efficiently, and the
Committee on Prizes is again happy to record its appreciation
of their unfailing patience and justice.
E. H. Wilson, Chairman.
112 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Report of the Library Committee
By gift, purchase, and binding, the Library added 282
volumes during 1929, making an estimated total of 25,500
bound books and magazines. Most of the books were selected
for their practical usefulness, but a few especially fine and
rare old books, not often on the market, were fortunately
available this year. The choicest of these were Bonpland's
Description des Plantes Bares Cultivees a Malmaison et a
Navarre, Duchesne's Histoire Naturelle des Fraisiers and the
fifth volume of the supplement to Sowerby's English Botany.
Since we have owned the other 39 volumes of the last work
since 1870, we were especially glad to complete the set. The
Society has also been enrolled as a subscriber to a most
important and ambitious project undertaken by the Royal
Horticultural Society of London — Index Londinensis to Illus-
trations of Flowering Plants, Ferns and Fern Allies. This is
without doubt the most important botanical and horticultural
reference work of recent years, for when completed it will
enable us to locate pictures and descriptions of any one of
several hundred thousand garden plants.
The number of books borrowed for use at home was 2783,
as against 2958 during the preceding year. This falling off
seems to have been the one unfortunate result of taking the
Spring Flower Show out of the building, for January and
February made the usual gain, while March fell off abruptly.
The situation was only temporary, and the last ^.Ye months
have been normally busy again. The loan of books is, however,
only a part of the Library's activity, for in many cases the
books can be supplied only after considerable time and study
have been given to the problems the books are to solve. The
Library was used regularly, not only by residents of Massa-
chusetts, but by members in Georgia, Mississippi, Missouri,
South Dakota, Iowa, Ohio, New York and New Hampshire.
The number of readers grows each year, but not as fast as it
should if all members made use of their opportunities.
The expert repairing of our rare books, begun in 1928, has
been continued. An unexpected discovery was made in the
course of the work on Brunfels' Herb arum Vivae Eicones.
The volume has stood on our shelves for years covered in
INAUGURAL MEETING 113
paper. Unusual panelled depressions in the boards roused the
binder's curiosity, and led to the discovery of very old (prob-
ably the original) leather sides. The book itself, published
just 400 years ago, is one of our finest examples of 16th cen-
tury plant books, and the early binding adds to both the
interest and the financial value of our copy.
An additional book truck and book stand have improved
the working equipment of the Library; new linoleum com-
position tops have been provided for the tables and catalogue
cases; and 12 more Windsor chairs have given additional
A few special events are worthy of mention. On January 18
the Library entertained the Newton Centre (Mass.) Garden
Club at its regular meeting with an informal talk and exhibit
of rare books. We hope that other clubs will follow the exam-
ple of the Newton Centre group. A book meeting could not
be held in a more appropriate place. The contribution of the
Library to our centennial celebration took the form of an
elaborate exhibit of books, medals and documents relating to
the history of the Society and of horticulture in America. One
case contained the original Library of the Society. We still
own almost all the 192 volumes listed in our first catalogue
(1831), and they are all in good physical condition. It is
interesting to find that several of today's choicest possessions
were bought in the opening years as the best then to be
obtained. In November we sent the Librarian, Miss Dorothy
St. J. Manks, to Washington, to study the methods followed
in the Library of the United States Department of Agricul-
ture. As a result, plans are being made to widen the scope of
the Library's work.
Nathaniel T. Kidder, Chairman.
Committee on the Products of Children's Gardens
The exhibition of the products of children's gardens was
held on September 7 and 8, 1929. There were 39 classes, with
from four to fourteen prizes offered in each class, all of which
were filled. Prizes were awarded to 18 schools and 159 chil-
dren, and amounted to $445.25. Schools and gardens which
were represented at this show included Brockton, Boston,
114 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Cambridge, Cohasset, Dedham, Dorchester, East Boston,
Jamaica Plain, Roslindale and Roxbury. Six of the prize
winners were from Bristol County which is an indication
that interest in these exhibits is spreading throughout the
state. Help in staging the show was given by Mr. O'Brien of
the Boston School Department, by Mr. Dooley and Mr.
Wendler of Jamaica Plain High School and by Mr. Murphy
of the Cambridge Children's Gardens.
During the coming year it is proposed to try an experiment
which will be somewhat of an innovation ; that is, to hold the
children's exhibition in the middle of the week instead of
over the week end. It is thought that this may prove more
satisfactory to teachers and pupils alike.
Marian Roby Case, Chairman.
Membership in the Massachusetts
The constitution of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society
fixes the annual dues at $2.00. For many years it has been
customary to charge an admission fee of $10.00, but by vote
of the Trustees this requirement has been set aside for the
present. Until the end of this year the only charge to new
members will be $2.00, although this sum does not cover the
cost to the Society of the publications which they will receive.
Life membership is obtained by paying the sum of $50.00,
no further charge ever being required. Annual members who
have paid the entrance fee of $10.00 in past years may become
life members by paying $40.00 additional.
All members receive an identification card, which should
be presented when books are borrowed from the Library.
Any man or woman in any part of the country who is
properly endorsed may make application for membership.
New members are needed in order to increase the influence of
the Society, and to broaden the scope of its work.
Application blanks may be obtained by writing to
Note — The Secretary is glad to have present members send
in the names of friends who might like to become enrolled.
The following is a list of the members of the Massachusetts
Horticultural Society whose deaths were reported during the
year 1929 :
Eugene H. Angert
Francis R. Appleton
Albert S. Apsey
Mrs. Deems Beebe
Mrs. Samuel C. Bennett
Albert S. Bigelow
Clovis H. Bowen
Joseph Francis Breck
Edward M. Brewer
Miss Annie H. Brown
Mrs. George L. Brownell
Robert M. Burnett
W. E. Cahill
Ernest W. Campbell
Miss Annie Carney
Fred M. Carr
Miss Annie C. Child
Mrs. William H. Claflin
Edward Jones Cox
J. Allen Crosby
Frederick S. Davis
Miss Ethel G. Day
John Fottler, Jr.
Mrs. Anna E. Goldie
T. D. Hatfield
Miss S. L. Hayes
Mrs. Frederick Holbrook
Mrs. Walter Jackson
Miss J. E. Johnson
George B. Leighton
Mrs. Frank R. Maxwell
Mrs. Robert E. McKinney
J. T. Melius
J. Morris Meredith
F. H. Merrick
Charles A. Morss
Miss Eleanor T. Ober
Miss Fanny C. Osgood
Clifton H. Paige
Mrs. J. G. Perrin
James Sturgis Pray
Mrs. Edward Randall
William E. C. Rich
Mrs. Edgar S. Rideout
Dr. Frederick C. Shattuck
Charles W. Sibley
Mrs. Huntington Smith
Walter B. Snow
Miss M. Louise Stockwell
Henry F. Tapley
W. B. Thomas *
Charles A. Ufford
C Sidney Waldo
Massachusetts Horticultural Society
1900 Dr. Henry S. Pritchett, New York.
1925 D. M. Andrews, Boulder, Colorado.
1925 Rudolph D. Anstead, Director of the Agricultural College,
1921 J. F. Bailey, Director of the Botanic Gardens, Adelaide, Soul 1 1
1889 Dr. L. H. Bailey, Ithaca, N. Y.
1925 F. R. S. Balfour, Dawyck, Stobo, Peebleshire, Scotland.
1911 W. J. Bean, 2, Mortlake Road, Kew, England.
1918 Desire Bois, Paris, France.
1925 I. H. Burkill, F. L. S., care the Royal Gardens, Kew.
1925 G. H. Cave, Ashton-under-Hill, England.
1922 Joseph Edgar Chamberlin, Boston, Mass.
1918 Leon Chenault, Orleans, France.
1921 Fred J. Chittenden, Director of the Royal Horticultural
Society Gardens, Wisley, Ripley, Surrey, England.
1925 Woon Young Chun, Botanical Dept., Southeastern University,
1921 Allister Clark, Glenara, Bulla, Victoria, Australia.
1921 Dr. Leonard Cockayne, Ngaio, Wellington, New Zealand.
1925 Henri Correvon, Geneva, Switzerland.
1925 G. W. Darnell-Smith, Director of the Sydney Botanic Gar-
dens, Sydney, New South Wales.
1925 Henry F. du Pont, Winterthur, Delaware.
1925 Pierre S. du Pont, Wilmington, Delaware.
1925 Charles C. Eley, M.A., F.L.S., Suffolk, England.
1925 I. B. Pole Evans, C.M.G., Chief of Division and Director Bo-
tanical Survey, Pretoria, South Africa.
1925 G. Eraser, Ucluelet, Vancouver Island, British Columbia.
1925 W. G. Freeman, B.S.C., F.L.S., Director of the Botanic Gar-
1900 Beverly T. Galloway, Department of Agriculture, Washing-
ton, D. C.
118 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1918 Professor N. E. Hansen, Brookings, South Dakota.
1925 Miss M. C. Hastie, Magnolia Gardens, S. C.
1911 Professor U. P. Hedrick, Geneva, N. Y.
1907 Dr. Augustine Henry, Dublin, Ireland.
1925 Joseph Hers, Tung Chang Hutung, Peking, China.
1925 William Hertrick, San Gabriel, California.
1925 Hermann A. Hesse, Weener, Germany.
1925 M. Robert Hickel, Versailles, France.
1925 Arthur W. Hill, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, Eng-
1925 E. G. Hill, Richmond, Ind.
1925 E. Hillier, Winchester, England.
1897 J. W. Hoffman, Orangeburg, S. C.
1925 R. E. Horsey, Rochester, N. Y.
1925 Professor H. H. Hu, National Southeastern University, Nan-
1925 Mrs. C. L. Hutchinson, Lake Geneva, Wisconsin.
1925 Hon. William M. Jardine, Washington, D. C.
1925 Charles W. Knight, Oakdale, N. Y.
1921 C. E. Lane-Poole, Canberra, Australia.
1925 C. C. Laney, Rochester, N. Y.
1875 G. F. B. Leighton, Norfolk, Virginia.
1911 M. Emile Lemoine, Nancy, France.
1925 Gerald W. E. Loder, M.A., F.L.S., Sussex, England.
1925 Donald MacGregor, care Royal Gardens, Kew.
1925 Dr. Rudolph Marloth, Capetown, South Africa.
1925 Sir John S. Maxwell, Pollokshaws, Scotland.
1925 The Rt. Hon. Sir Herbert E. Maxwell, Bart, F.R.S., D.C.L.,
Wigtownshire, North Britain.
1875 F. C. Maxwell, Geneva, N. Y.
1925 John McLaren, San Francisco, California.
1918 J. Horace McFarland, Harrisburg, Pa.
1925 Mrs. William Mercer, Doylestown, Pa.
1911 Wilhelm Miller, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111.
1925 Rev. E. M. Mills, D.D., Laguna Beach, California.
1925 Dr. Kingo Miyabe, Director of the Botanic Garden, Sapporo,
1898 Sir Frederick W. Moore, Glasnevin, Dublin, Ireland.
MEMBERS OP THE MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 119
1918 Dr. George T. Moore, Botanical Gardens, St. Louis, Mo.
1925 F. Cleveland Morgan, Montreal, Canada.
1887 Sir Daniel Morris, K.C.M.G., 14 Crabton Close, Boscombe,
1925 Mr. Joy Morton, Chicago, Illinois.
1919 M. Seraphin Joseph Mottet, Verrieres-le-Buisson (Seine-et-
1925 F. R. Newbold, New York, N. Y.
1925 M. L. Parde, Nbgent-sur-Vernisson (Loiret), France.
1906 Lt.-Col. Sir David Prain, Warlingham, Surrey, England.
1925 Miss Isabel Preston, Ottawa, Canada.
1925 Johannes Rapn, Skovfrokontoret, Copenhagen, Denmark.
1894 Cavaliere Enrico Raguso, Palermo, Sicily.
1925 Dr. Robert Ridgway, Olney, Illinois.
1906 Dr. Henry L. Ridley, care Royal Gardens, Kew.
1898 Benjamin Lincoln Robinson, Ph.D., Curator of the Gray
Herbarium of Harvard University, Cambridge.
1875 William Robinson, East Grinstead, Sussex, England.
1921 L. Rod way, C.M.G., Government Botanist and Secretary, Bo-
tanic Gardens, Hobart, Tasmania.
1899 William Salway, Cincinnati, Ohio.
1925 Camillo Schneider, Charlottenburg, Germany.
1925 F. L. Skinner, Dropmore, Manitoba.
1925 Professor William Wright Smith, Royal Botanic Gardens,
1925 Dr. H. Spaeth, Berlin-Baumschulenweg, Germany.
1925 Dr. Otto Stapp, London, England.
1921 David Tannock, Superintendent, Botanic Gardens, Dunedin,
1893 Professor William Trelease, Urbana, 111.
1921 M. Jacques de Vilmorin, Paris, France.
1912 Professor Hugo de Vries, University of Amsterdam, Amster-
1918 F. Gomer Waterer, Bagshot, Surrey, England.
1925 Cyril T. White, Government Botanist, Brisbane, Queensland,
1919 J. C. Williams, Gorran, Cornwall, England.
1906 Miss Ellen Willmott, Great Warley, Essex, England.
1911 E. H. Wilson, Jamaica Plain, Mass.
1921 Gurney Wilson, Richmond, Surrey, England.
1925 John C. Wister, Germantown, Pa.
1901 Professor L. Wittmack, Secretary of the Horticultural So-
1925 Major A. C. T. Woodward, Bewdley, Worcestershire, England.
NEW MEMBERS IN 1929
Abbott, Mrs. George N., Newtonville.
Adams, Mr. Frank W., Boston.
A.hl, Mr. Henry Hammond, Newbury-
Ainsley, Mr. Gordon, Campbell, Calif.
Ainslie, Mr. H. E., Marion.
Allain, Miss A. H., Wakefield, La.
Allen, Mr. Glover M., Cambridge.
Allen, Mrs. Glover M., Cambridge.
Allen, Mr. Mark E., Wilton, Me.
Allen, Mr. Morril B., East Braintree.
Allen, Mr. Raymond D., Amherst.
* Allen, Mrs. Thomas., Boston.
Anderson, Mr. Amil., Newton.
Anderson, Miss Dorothy M., Cam-
Anderson, Mr. James Williams, Wel-
Anderson, Mrs. Marie, Cresbard, So.
Anderson, Miss Olga S., Canton.
Andrews, Miss Florence I., South
Andrews, Mr. John E., Watertown.
Ansell, Mr. Phillip W., Melrose.
Anthony, Miss Marian E., Grove Hall.
Armstrong, Miss Anne L., West Rox-
Armstrong, Miss Florence E., Dorches-
Ashley, Mrs. Thomas, Boston.
Ashton, Mrs. Harry H., Arlington.
Atwater, Mrs. L. W., Boston.
Atwood, Miss Margaret A., Quincy.
Avis, Mr. Henry Wheaton, Cambridge.
Badger, Mr. John W., Brookline.
Bailey, Mrs. Lillian P., Woburn.
Bailey, Mr. McP., Moscow, Idaho.
Baine, Mrs. Millicent M., Waltham.
Baker, Mr. George Bramwell, Chest-
Baldwin, Miss Amelia, Boston.
Baldwin, Mrs. Ella L., Stoneham.
Baldwin, Mrs. Henry S., Swampscott.
Ball, Mrs. F. E., Greenfield.
Ballard, Mr. Edward B., Lexington.
Bamford, Miss Ethel I., East Lynn.
Bancroft, Mrs. Bertha S., Reading.
Banister, Mrs. Edwin H., Northampton.
*Barbour, Mr. Thomas, Cambridge.
Barlow, Miss Elva M.. Brookline.
Barnes, Mrs. Blanche H., Waltham.
Barnes, Miss 0. M., Maiden.
Barnes, Mrs. Walter E., Wellesley
Barnett, Mrs. John, Regina, Saskatche-
Barrows, Mr. Walter A., Wellesley.
Barry, Mrs. Rachael, Ayer.
Barry, Mr. Thomas J., Brockton.
Bartlett, Mrs. Martha M., Quincy.
Bartlett, Mr. Walter C, Milton.
Bassett, Mrs. J. Gardner, Bridgewater.
Bates, Mr. A. O., North Grafton.
Baylies, Mrs. Clifford, New Bedford.
Beach, Mr. William E., Hyde Park.
Beal, Mr. William DeFord, Boston.
Beale, Mrs. W. E., Brockton.
Beals, Mr. Sidney L., West Newton.
Bean, Mrs. Henry S., Lincoln.
Bean, Mr. Ralph C, Wakefield.
Beardsell, Mrs. George R., Lynn.
Beckett, Mr. W. Laurence, Marble-
Beebe, Miss Sylenda, Melrose.
Belcher, Miss Ruth N., Montello.
Belcher, Mrs. Sarah P., Plymouth.
Belknap, Mrs. Robert E., Boston.
Bell, Mr. Edward L., Wellesley Hills.
Bell, Mr. Edwin D., Hingham.
Benedict, Mr. L. P., Boston.
Bennett, Miss Alma S., Fall River.
Benson, Mrs. Gertrude A., Dorchester.
Bent, Mr. Harold E., Abington.
Berggren, Mr. Carl H., Cambridge.
Bibby, Mr. Francis M., Medfield.
Bill, Miss Caroline E., Cambridge.
Billings, Mi~ss Clara E., Cambridge.
Billings, Mr. Frank E., Shrewsbury.
Billings, Mr. Harry A., Hopedale.
Bingham, Mr. John H., Andover.
Birely, Mr. William L., Brookline.
Bishop, Mr. Axel A., Sharon.
Bjornson, Mrs. T. O., Newtonville.
Blackman, Mr. William, Cohasset.
Blair, Miss Edith A., Stockbridge.
Blanchard, Mrs. H. Lawton, Brockton.
Bliss, Miss Lucy B., Taunton.
Blodgett, Mrs. Mary D., Roxbury.
Boardman, Mr. Alonzo P., Augusta,
Bolles, Mr. Charlton B., Brockton.
Bolles, Mrs. Chester A., Ipswich.
Bolster, Judge Wilfred, Brookline.
Boothby, Mrs. William G., Augusta,
Borden, Mrs. Spencer. Fall River.
Bosson. Mrs. Campbell, Belmont.
Bourget, Mrs. Charles. Brockton.
Boutelle. Miss Muriel E., Leominster.
Bouton, Mrs. Luella S., Baltimore, Md.
Bowden, Mrs. Herbert L., Marblehead
Bowditch, Mrs. Frederick C, Brook-
Bovnton, Miss Adelaide, Melrose High-
Brace. Mrs. Llo^d D., Boston.
Brackett, Mrs. Charles A., Sudbury.
Bradford, Mrs. Bertha L., Winchester.
NEW MEMBERS IN 1929
Bradford, Mrs. G. W., Plymouth.
Bradley, Miss Alice, Hyde Park.
Bradley, Mrs. Oharles F., Boston.
*Bradshaw, Mr. J. M., Brookline.
Braman, Miss L. K., Bridgewater.
Bramhall, Miss Mina 0., Chelsea.
Breagy, Mr. John J., Dover.
Breed, Mrs. F. T., Lynn.
Breed, Mr. Ralph 0., Clinton.
Brennan, Mr. W. H., Jamaica Plain.
Briggs, Mr. Charles V., Lincoln.
Briggs, Mrs. Henry P., Wellesley Hills.
Briggs, Dr. J. Emmons, Boston.
Briggs, Mrs. Susan L., Lincoln.
*Bristol, Mr. Bennet B., Foxboro.
Brittain, Mr. B. L., Newton Center.
Brockway, Mr. E. K., Wellesley Hills.
Brodbeck, Dr. Frances W., Manchester.
Brooks, Mrs. Arthur B., Concord.
Brophy, Miss Nora A., West Roxbury.
Brown, Mrs. Charles A., Lowell.
Brown, Mrs. Charles B., Brookline.
Brown, Mrs. Jean R., Watertown.
Brown, Mrs. Horatio J., Brookline.
Brown, Mrs. L. Cora, Concord.
Brown, Mr. Louis A., Wellesley.
Brown, Miss Maud E., South Byfield.
Brown, Mr. Oliver F., New Bedford.
Brown, Mr. Russell L., Lowell.
Brown, Mr. William, Ayer.
Brown, Mrs. William H., Boston.
Brownell, Mr. Walter L., Providence,
Bryant, Mrs. Joseph S., Boston.
Bryant, Mrs. William E., Brockton.
Bunker, Mr. Darius W., Quincy.
Burke, Mrs. B. Milo, Brockton.
Burleigh, Mrs. Harry W., Franklin,
Burnett, Mrs. F. H., Brockton.
Burnham, Mrs. Chester C, Arlington.
Burnham, Mrs. F. L., Lowell.
Burnham, Mrs. Mary E., Chelsea.
Burroughs, Mr. Robert, Newport, R. I.
Burtt, Mrs. F. H., Wellesley Hills.
Butler, Miss Clementine, West Barring-
Butler, Mr. Harold B., Brockton.
Butterfield, Miss L. Ardena, Beverly.
Campbell, Mr. Arthur D., Boston.
Campbell, Mr. Warren D., Weston.
Capen, Miss Mattie B., Stoughton.
Capers, Mr. Arthur F., Wellesley.
Carman, Mrs. J. L., Tacoma, Wash.
Carman, Mrs. Travers D., Newton.
Carney, Mrs. Martin J., Boston.
Carr, Miss Helen F., Hillsboro, N. H.
Carroll, Mrs. Charles, Salem.
Carroll, Mrs. Thomas, Bridgewater.
Carter, Mrs. Lewis Edward, Wakefield.
Carter, Mrs. S. T., Plainfield, N. J.
Carter, Mr. William B., Tewksbury.
Gary, Mr. W. E., West Newton.
Case, Mrs. Whitney G. f Buffalo, N. Y.
Cassano, Mr. Joseph, Wakefield.
Chamberlain, Miss Grace F., Cam-
Chamberlin, Mr. J. E., Boston.
Ohapin, Mrs. Caroline W., Reading.
Ohapln, Miss Florence M., Belmont.
Chapin, Miss M. H., Brookline.
Chapman, Mr. H. R., Allendale, N. J.
Charlton, Miss Dorothy, Brookline.
Chase, Mrs. Albert H., Norwich, Conn.
Chase, Mr. C. Thurston, Great Barring-
Chase, Mrs. Peter B., Providence, R. I.
Child, Miss Helen G., Augusta, Maine.
Ohilson, Mr. Lester S., Dedham.
Ohoate, Miss Emma, Sharon.
Chrimes, Mrs. L. A., Brookline.
Church, Miss Helen M., Boston.
Churchill, Mr. Percival M., Elmwood.
Claflin, Mrs. Walter A., Watertown.
Clancy, Mrs. Carl B., Dedham.
Olapp, Mrs. Elmer E., Brookline.
Clapp, Mrs. Frank W., Weymouth.
Olarenbach, Mr. Walter R., Needham.
Clark, Mrs. Albert B., Lee.
Clark, Rev. Davis W., Annisquam.
Clark, Mr. Raymond S., Mattapan.
Clark, Mrs. Robert M., Natick.
Clarke, Mrs. May L., Milton.
Cobb, Mrs. Virginia R., Newton.
Coburn, Mrs. Frederick W., Lowell.
Codman, Mrs. E. A., Boston.
Oolburn, Miss Ruth, Hyde Park.
Cole, Mrs. Edward B., South Hamilton.
Coles, Mr. Frederick, South Natick.
Collins, Miss Elizabeth, Melrose.
Colman, Miss Laura, Milton.
Oonboy, Mr. Frank, Boston.
Connors, Mr. John W., East Dedham.
Converse, Mrs. Atherton D., Winchen-
Conwell, Mrs. L. M., Somerville.
Cony, Mr. J. S., Medford.
Cook, Mrs. Charles D., Providence,
Cook, Mrs. Elizabeth E., Foxboro.
Cook, Mr. John A., Gloucester.
Cook, Mr. Joseph E., North Abington.
Cook, Mrs. William G., Wollaston.
Cooley, Miss Emily H., Cambridge.
Coolidge, Mr. Joseph A., Cambridge.
Coolidge, Miss N. Eveline, Framing-
*Coolidge, Mrs. W. H., Jr., Manchester.
Cooper, Mrs. Burton H., Newton Cen-
Cooper, Mr. W. Rudolph, Wellesley.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Copeland, Mrs. Charles, Newton Cen-
Copeland, Miss Edith, Bridgewater.
Corliss, Mr. Mora A., Needham.
Cornell, Mr. Worthington, Maiden.
Costello, Miss Annabel, Lowell.
Coughlin, Miss Margaret, "West Con-
Cousins, Mrs. James L., Jamaica Plain.
Cox, Mrs. Alfred, Bridgewater.
Cox, Miss Eleanor L., Newtonville.
Cox, Mrs. Herbert B., Winchester.
Cox, Mrs. Joseph, Mattapan.
Crafts, Mrs. George B., Cohasset.
Cragen, Miss Agnes V., Salem.
Crane, Mrs. Francis V., Needham.
Crane, Mr. Herbert, Kenton, Ohio.
Crocker, Mr. Ernest C, Belmont.
Crombie, Miss Helen, Cambridge.
Crone, Mr. Louis L., Lexington.
Crosby, Mrs. William O., Jamaica
Cross, Mrs. Louise K., Winchendon.
Crouse, Mrs. Ellie S., Ontario, Canada.
Crowninshield, Mrs. B. B.,. Marble-
Crysler, Mrs. E. N., Boston.
Cudworth, Mrs. C. Henry, Brookline.
Cudworth, Miss M. H., Quincy.
Cummins, Mrs. A. Gordon, Barneveld,
*Curtis, Mrs. Allen, Beverly Farms.
Curtis, Miss Mary, Hamilton.
Curtis, Miss Mary, Hingham.
Cushman, Mr. Roy M., Melrose.
Cutcliffe, Mrs. Edna A., Braintree.
Cutler, Miss Marian, Brookline.
Cutting, Mrs. Florence S., Wellesley
Daigneau, Mrs. G. L., Salem.
Dailey, Mr. Francis K., Medford.
Daland, Mrs. John, Salem.
Dalrymple, Mrs. George E., Haverhill.
Damon, Mrs. Herbert, Maiden.
Danforth, Mr. Ralph E., Chesterfield.
Darling, Miss Winifred, North Rayn-
Darrow, Mrs. William G., Sharon.
David, Mrs. James B., Boston.
Davis, Mrs. Albion R., Wellesley.
Davis, Mr. Arnold M., Amherst.
Davis, Mrs. Arthur C, Gloucester.
Davis, Mr. Ben Arthur, Meridian, Mis-
Davis, Mrs. C. R., Roslindale.
Davis, Mr. Frank E , Gloucester.
Davis, Mrs. Gorham Hi, Hanover.
Davis, Mr. Harold I., Pembroke, N. H.
Davis, Mrs. Lawrence, Walpole.
Day, Mrs. Wallace W., Exeter. N. H.
Dean, Mrs. Ernest, Annisquam.
Dean, Mr. Lucian W., Amherst.
Dean, Miss Mary S., Brockton.
Debaillon Mrs. Dan, Lafayette, La.
Deckard, Mrs. Walter M., Boston.
Decrow, Miss Marion L., Dorchester.
Delabarre, Mr. Frank A., Greenbush.
Dellow, Miss Grace P., Lynn.
Dennett, Dr. Daniel C, Winchester.
Derby, Mrs. J. C, Concord, N. H.
DeVeber, Miss Beatrice, Waltham.
Dewhurst, Mr. William, Methuen.
*Dexter, Miss Mary L., Brookline.
Dickinson, Mrs. F. F., Brockton.
Dietz, Mrs. W. H., Newton Center.
Dingwell, Mr. Lester R., West Roxbury.
Dixon, Mr. Harry L., Arlington.
Doane, Mr. George, North Brookfield.
Dodge, Mrs. Douglas, Farmington,
Donaldson, Mr. Robert D., Lincoln.
Donovan, Mr. Alfred, Jr., Boston.
Donovan, Mrs. Alfred, Jr., Boston.
Dorn, Miss Lillian, Wollaston.
Dort, Mr. Charles, Rockport.
Dove, Mrs. Emmet, Rockville, Mary-
Dow, Mrs. Alice G., Topsfleld.
Dowbridge, Mrs. A. A., Bellows Falls,
Dragon, Mrs. Ernest F., Marshfield.
Drake, Mr. Clifford S., North Cam-
Drake, Mrs. Ruth M. J., North Hamp-
ton, N. H.
Dresser, Mrs. Merton G., Bradford.
Drew, Miss Emily F., Kingston.
Drew, Mrs. Fred, Brockton.
Drury, Miss Alberta F., Reading.
Drury, Mrs. S. S., Concord, N. H.
Duffill, Mrs. John H., Melrose.
Dugan, Miss Edith A., Canton.
Duncan, Mrs. William S., Athol.
Dunham, Mrs. Horace C, Wellesley.
Dupee, Mr. Allan L., Roslindale.
Durant, Mrs C. E., Haverhill.
Durgin, Mrs. Edward C, Marshfield
Durham, Miss Elizabeth P., Boston.
Dustin, Miss Lillian F., Cambridge.
Duthie-Strachan, Mr. George, Chestnut
Duvall, Mr. Harold W., Watertown.
Dvlinsky, Mrs. Matilda, Brockton.
Eager, Mrs. Laura, Auburn.
Eager, Mr. Ralph H., Milton.
Eames, Mrs. T. H., West Somerville.
Earnshaw, Mrs. Charles, Weston.
Eaton, Miss Blanche. Winchester.
Eaton, Mrs. Joseph P., Sharon.
NEW MEMBERS IN 1929
Eaton, Miss Luella, Needham Heights.
Eckhardt, Mrs. Charles H., Islington.
Edmands, Mrs. Frank, Newton Center.
Edmands, Mrs. John S., Somerville.
Eichelberger, Mr. Jay L., Boston.
Elder, Miss Mary, West Newton.
Eldridge, Miss Nina, Harding.
Eldridge, Mr. Robert P., Beverly.
Eliot, Miss Mary, Newtonville.
Ellis, Mr. P. M., Griffin, Georgia.
Ellis, Miss Lillian E., Newton Center.
Elson, Mr. Arthur, Boston.
Elson, Mrs. Bertha L., Boston.
Endicott, Miss Helen E., Canton.
Erickson, Mr. Charles F., Reading.
Esson, Mrs. James E., West Newton.
Estabrook, Mrs. Herbert W., Worces-
Estabrook, Mr. R. B., Cambridge.
Evans, Mrs. E. W., Oil City, Pa.
Evans, Miss Edith, Brookline.
Evans, Mrs. Fred B., Salem.
Eyplenburg, Mrs. A., East Lynn.
Fairbanks, Mrs. Arthur W., West Rox-
Fairbanks, Miss Julia M., Milton.
*Farlow, Mr. John W., Boston.
Farnham, Mrs. Wallace S., South Wind-
Farnsworth, Mrs. Walter A., Harvard.
Farr, Mr. Raymond, Boston.
Farrell, Mr. Anthony P., Jamaica Plain.
Farrier, Mr. Herbert, Auburndale.
*Farrington, Mrs. Robert D., Newton.
Farrington, Mrs. W. R., Middleboro.
Faull, Mrs. Annie B. S., Cambridge.
Faull, Mr. Joseph H., Cambridge.
Faust, Miss Verna, Mercersburg, Pa.
Fawcett, Mrs. Robert J., Lexington.
Feauvalle, Miss Marjorie M., Brook-
Fellows, Mrs. Alice D., Marblehead.
Fessenden, Miss Anna, Newtonville.
Field, Mrs. S. Olin, Norwich, N. Y.
Firth, Miss Hazel A., Boston.
Fisher, Miss Caroline W., Newton.
Fisher, Miss H. Elizabeth, Norwood.
Fisher, Mrs. Howard H, Roslindale.
Fisher, Mrs. W. N., Gloucester.
Fishstein, Mrs. W., Jamaica Plain
Fiske, Miss W. A. A., Portland, Me.
Fitts, Mrs. R. W., West Medford.
Fitts, Mr. Wallace J., Beverly.
Fitzpatrick, Mr. William J., Chestnut
Flagg, Mrs. Alice K., West Roxbury.
Fletcher, Mrs. Edith M., Salem.
Fletcher, Mr. Willis H., Wollaston.
Flint, Mrs. Perley G., Brockton.
Flood, Mrs. Mary, Woburn.
Foley, Miss Anna J., Medford Hillside.
Folger, Mrs. Florence, Swampscott.
Forbes, Mrs. Francis W., East Milton.
Forte, Mrs. Marie W., Wellesley.
Foster, Mrs. Frederick P., Boston.
Foster, Mrs. S. H., Belmont.
Fournier, Mr. Joseph, Woburn.
Fowle, Miss Mary E., Reading.
Fowler, Mr. Bertram B., Medfield.
Fowler, Mr. George G., Franklin, N. H.
Fowler, Mrs. Loring, Concord.
Franke, Mr. William A., Needham.
Freeman, Mr. Carlyle P., Reading.
Freeman, Mr. Forrest E., West Newton.
Freeman, Mrs. Lewis, Bridgewater.
French, Mrs. H. D., Amherst.
Frost, Miss Mildred N., Newton Center.
Frost, Mrs. William, Melrose.
Frothingham, Mrs. Ashton, North Wey-
Fuller, Mrs. Lawrence, Lynn.
Fullerton, Mrs. E. D., Dedham.
Fullerton, Mr. W. E., Whitman.
Fullerton, Mrs. Walter W., Brockton.
Fullick, Mr. G. W., Cochituate.
Furber, Miss Jane M., Cambridge.
Gage, Mrs. Edna E. ( Haverhill.
Gallup, Mrs. Dana, Cambridge.
*Gamage, Miss Gladys B., Quincy.
Gardner, Mrs. Frederick M., Southern
Pines, N. 0.
Garfield, Mrs. Merton L., Cambridge.
Garland, Miss Caroline H., Dover, N. H.
Garland, Mrs. George F., Tewksbury.
Garland, Mrs. Paul, Wellesley Hills.
Garvey, Mr. Thomas F., Jr., Lowell.
Gassett, Mrs. Frederick, Bridgewater.
Gavin, Mr. John H., Manchester.
Gebert, Mr. James L., New Iberia, La.
Gersdorff, Mrs. Charles E. F., Wash-
ington, D. C.
Geyer, Miss Pauline, Brockton.
Gifford, Mrs. Charles T., South West-
Gifford, Mr. Josiah H., Salem.
Gifford, Miss Winifred B., Dorchester.
Gilbert, Mrs. James P., Still River.
Gile, Miss Eleanor E., West Newton.
Givler, Mrs. Robert C, Medford.
Glidden, Mrs. Waldo F., Lexington.
Glidden, Mrs. William T., West New-
Glynn, Mr. C. E., Lexington.
Goddard, Mrs. Charles S., Newtonville.
Goddard, Miss Martha R., Auburndale.
Goldie, Mrs. George G., Newton Center.
Goldsmith, Miss Gertrude B., Manches-
Goldthwaite, Miss Elizabeth H., Hing-
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Goldthwaite, Mrs. William J., Marble-
Goodell, Mr. Everett, Westboro.
Goodwin, Mr. Clinton F., Haverhill.
Goodwin, Mrs. Elliot H., Cambridge.
Goodwin, Mr. Fred W., Arlington.
Goodwin, Mrs. Robert, Concord.
Gorham, Mrs. Thomas, Waban.
Gould, Miss Vera F., Swampscott.
Gowell, Mrs. F. W., Dorchester Heights.
Grant, Mrs. Frank, Westfield.
Grant, Mrs. Frederick T., Maiden.
Graves, Mrs. Edward, Brookline.
Graves, Dr. Robert J., Concord, N. H.
Gray, Miss B. Mildred, Medford.
Gray, Mr. Dudley P., Chelsea.
Gray, Miss Helen G., Brighton.
Greene, Miss E. W., Lynnfield Center.
Greene, Mrs. George M., Belmont.
Greener, Mr. George C, Boston.
Greenslet, Mrs. Ferris, Boston.
Gregg, Mrs. Leon W., Westbrook, Conn.
Gregory, Mr. Edward S., Winthrop.
Griffin, Mrs. J. Hollis, Gloucester.
Griffin, Mr. Kenward, Rockport.
Griffin, Mr. Walter A., Sharon.
Grimwood, Mrs. Helen, Providence,
Grinnell, Mrs. Henry F., Fall River.
Groghan, Mrs. John T., Waban.
Groom, Mrs. Samuel B., Beach Bluff.
Guidrey, Miss Frances N., Watertown.
Guild, Mrs. Charles E., Readville.
Guilford, Mrs. Frank C, Lynn.
Guinan, Mr. T. J., Arlington.
Gurney, Mrs. Merton S., Brockton.
Guyol, Miss Louise H., Boston.
Guyot, Mr. Alfred, Wayland.
Haddrell, Mrs. Charles H., Swamp-
Hahn, Mr. John, Allston.
Hahn, Mrs. John, Allston.
Haight, Miss L. B., Pelham Manor,
Hall, Miss Alice A., Dedham.
Hall, Miss Fannie, Grafton, Vt.
Hallett, Mrs. W. L., Brockton.
Hallstream, Mrs. Henning, Braintree.
Hamilton, Mr. Burton C, Brookline.
Hamilton, Mr. William, Clinton.
Hammond, Mrs. Bessie K., Melrose.
Hammond, Mr. Charles, Melrose.
Hammond, Judge Henry C, Augusta,
Hanlon, Mr. Ambrose A., Cliftondale.
Hanson, Mrs. Conrad R., Gloucester.
Hanson, Miss Grace L., Haverhill.
Harden, Mr. John B., Newton Center.
Harding, Miss Elizabeth, Cambridge.
Harding, Mrs. Helen B., Arlington.
Hardwick, Mrs. Alice R., Annisquam.
Harkness, Mrs. G. E., Dorchester.
Harlow, Mrs. A. S., Newton Center.
Harper, Mrs. Frank W., Wakefield.
Harper, Mrs. R. M., Milton.
Harring, Mr. Carl, Newton Center.
Harrington, Mr. C. F., Watertown.
Harris, Mrs. Alfred S., Salem.
Harris, Miss Elsie M., Medford.
Harrison, Mrs. Charles L., Newton.
Harrison, Mr. Harry, Worcester.
Hart, Mrs. George A., Essex.
Hartshorn, Mrs. F. A., Walpole.
Hartwell, Mr. George A., Maiden.
Harvey, Mr. Charles J., Boylston.
Harwood, Miss Mary E., Wellesley.
Hastings, Miss Claire, Swampscott.
Hastings, Mr. Leslie, Boston.
Hatch, Mrs. Blanche A., Brookline.
Hatch, Mrs. Eugenie, East Sandwich.
Hatch, Mrs. R. A., Brookline.
Hatch, Mr. Ralph E., West Newton.
Hathorne, Mr. J. E., South Orleans.
Hawkins, Mrs. V. M., Plymouth.
Hayward, Mrs. Carle R., Quincy.
Hay ward, Mrs. Harrison W., Newton
Haywood, Mrs. Edith, Lynn.
Hazard, Mrs. Willis H., Jamaica Plain.
Headley, Mrs. P. 0., Jr., Fairhaven.
Hedden, Miss Evangeline N., Worces-
Heeney, Miss Mercedes E., Brookline.
Hemenway, Mr. H. E., Holden.
Henderson, Mr. Lloyd F., Reading.
Henriksen, Mr. Frank, Dorchester.
Herman, Mr. Solomon, Dorchester.
Herrick, Mrs. Leander, Worcester.
Herrick, Miss Mary E., Beverley.
Hersey, Mr. G. B., Milton.
Hersey, Miss Mary L., Boston.
Hersey, Mrs. Walter H., Haverhill.
Heywood, Mr. Sidney B., Fall River.
Heywood, Mrs. Sidney B., Fall River.
Hicks, Mr. G. Clifford, Melrose.
Higgins, Mrs. John W., Worcester.
Hill, Mrs. Frank F., Milton.
Hill, Mrs. Isaac, Concord, N. H.
Hill, Mr. John R., Urbana, Ohio.
Hille, Mr. Charles L., Mansfield.
Hille, Mrs. Charles L., Mansfield.
Hinchcliffe, Mrs. F. A., Brookline.
Hinckley, Miss Beatrice L., West New-
Hinckley, Mrs. Ernest B., Brockton.
Hindenlang, Mr. Herman, Waban.
Hinds, Mrs. Harriet Grey, Stoneham.
Hinds, Mrs. Leslie P., West Medford.
Hines, Mr. James, Roxbury.
Hinkley, Mrs. M. J., Brookline.
Hittinger, Mr. Richard, Belmont.
Hobson, Mrs. George, Brookline.
Hodgdon, Miss Natalie, Worcester.
NEW MEMBERS IN 1929
Hockridge, Mr. Joseph B., Newton
Hodges, Mrs. Gilbert, Marblehead.
Hodges, Mr. Wetmore, Beverly Farms.
Hofmann, Mr. William J., Roslindale.
Hogle, Miss A. Louise, Somerville.
Holbrook, Mrs. Henry E., Millis.
Holbrook, Mrs. John S., Providence,
Holden, Miss Charlotte, Falmouth.
*Holliday, Mr. George, Marion.
Holmberg, Mr. N. Edward, Longmea-
dow, R. I.
Holmes, Mr Carl W., Campello.
Holmes, Miss Clara E., Cambridge.
*Holmes, Miss Harriet F., Batavia, 111.
Holmes, Miss Helen W., Plymouth.
Holmes, Mrs. J. Harry, Milton.
Holmes, Mrs. Jonathan H., Bronxville,
Holstein, Mr. Edward A., New Britain,
Holton, Mrs. A. H., Boston.
Holyoke, Mrs. Charles, Medford.
Hooper, Mrs. A. N., Melrose.
Hopfmann, Mrs. William, Clinton.
Hopkins, Mrs. James C, Boston.
Hopkins, Mr. W. B., Boston.
Horton, Mr. Aubin J., Cambridge.
Horton, Mrs. Etta A., New Bedford.
Horton, Mr. George, Weston.
Horton, Mrs. George, Weston.
Horton, Mrs. William A., Canton.
Hosmer, Mrs. Calvin, Sharon.
Houghton, Mr. Guy G., Belmont.
Houghton, Mrs. W. E., Swampscott.
Hovey, Mrs. E. C, Milton.
Howard, Mrs. Corydon, Bridgewater.
Howe, Mrs. Herbert H., Littleton, N. H.
Howland, Mrs. 0. D., Plymouth.
Hoyt, Mrs. H. E., Jamaica Plain.
Hubbard, Mr. Henry V., Milton.
Hubbard, Mrs. Henry V., Milton.
Huckins, Mrs. G. F., Sharon.
Hudson, Mr. E. G., Campello.
Hudson, Miss Ethel E., Dorchester.
Hudspeth, Mr. R. N., Concord.
Hulse, Mr. S. B., Belmont.
Humphreys, Miss Elizabeth R., Ded-
Humphries, Mr. Anthony, Waltham.
Hunneman, Mr. Fred B., Lexington.
Hunnewell, Mr. A. T., Winchester.
Hunt, Mr. Albert W., East Saugus.
Hunt, Mrs. Brenelle, Bridgewater.
Hunt, Mr. Leonard G., Newton Center.
Hunter, Miss Louise D., Wellesley.
Huntoon, Mrs. E. J. B., Ponkapoag.
Huntsman, Mrs. Ray, West Newton.
Hurd, Mrs. G. N, Milton.
Hurd, Mrs. Lizzie E., Winter Hill.
Hutchins, Mrs. Constantine, Chestnut
Hyde, Mrs. Lavius H., East Braintree.
Hyde, Mrs. Mark P., Wellesley Farms.
Iddings, Mrs. Frederick T., Sharon.
Ide, Mrs. Henry J., Newton Center.
Ingalls, Mrs. F. D. B., Reading.
Ingraham, Mrs. Edward, Cambridge.
Irwin, Mrs. 0. H., Arlington Heights.
Ives, Mr. Leonard N, Salem.
Ives, Mr. Richard M., Jamaica Plain.
Jackson, Mr. Malcolm H., Brookline.
Jacobs, Mrs. Annie E., Tufts College.
Jacobs, Mr. Loring H., Wellesley.
Jacobs, Mr. Stephen B., Newton High-
Jacques, Mrs. Rupert, Swampscott.
Jameson, Mrs. Robert W., Antrim,
Jameson, Miss S. A., Melrose.
Jenkins, Mrs. George O., Bridgewater.
Jewell, Miss Grace, Medfield.
Jewell, Mr. Walter H., New Rochelle,
Johnson, Mrs. Arthur C, Newton.
Johnson, Miss Edith, Cambridge.
Johnson, Mrs. Edward C, Readville.
Johnson, Mrs. Frederick H., Northboro.
Johnson, Mrs. Henry R., Salem.
Johnson, Mrs. O. Sylvester, Mt. Pros-
Jones, Miss Alice G., Billerica.
Jones, Mrs. Frederick H., Andover.
Joslin, Dr. P. E., Milford.
Kaderli, Miss Anni, New York, N. Y.
Kaiser, Mrs. Frank A., Scranton, Pa.
Karb, Mr. Russell, Framingham.
Keander, Mr. Gustave B., Wakefield.
Keegan, Miss, Lawrence.
Keith, Mrs. Edward A., Campello.
Keith, Mrs. Eldon B., Campello.
Kelleher, Miss Mary E., Brockton.
Kelley, Mrs. Herbert L., Dorchester
Kelley, Mrs. Joshua C, Winchester.
Kellogg, Mr. Alfred, Waverley.
Kelly, Mrs. Maud W., Lexington.
Kelly, Mr. Theodore L., South Boston.
Kendall, Miss Edith, Brookline.
Kendall, Mrs. Thomas L., Brockton.
*Kent, Mrs. Edward L., Boston.
Kessler, Mr. Walter, Indianapolis, Ind.
Keyes, Mrs. Ralph E., Auburndale.
Kibrick, Mr. I. S., Brockton.
Kiernan, Mr. Albert E., Dorchester
Kilpatrick, Miss Mary H., Lowell.
Kimball, Mrs. Eleanor E., Worcester.
Kingsley, Mrs. John J., Jamaica Plain.
Kirsch, Mr. O. M., Jamaica Plain.
Kleinschmidt, Mrs. R. V., Arlington.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Knight, Dr. Marcus W., Milford.
Knowles, Mr. Howard B., Chevy Chase,
Koch-Petersen, Mr. Sigvard, Nova
Kratezer, Mrs. Eugene, Lexington.
Kydd, Mrs. D. E., Lexington.
Ladd, Mr. Alexander H., Milton.
Ladd, Miss Esther E., Melrose.
Lane, Miss Daisy, Melrose Highlands.
Lane, Mr. William C, Cambridge.
Lapthorn, Mr. Robert B., Bridgewater.
Lathrop, Miss Florence B., Framing-
Lavigne, Mrs. Louis V., Hudson.
Lawless, Mr. Carl, Mystic, Conn.
Lawrence, Mrs. Samuel C, Auburndale.
Lawson, Mr. Fred A., Stoneham.
Lawton, Mrs. R. M., Plainfield, N. J.
Leach, Mrs. Ernest, Bridgewater.
Leach, Mrs. Joseph S., Walpole.
Leach, Mrs. Osborne, Danvers.
Leahey, Mrs. George A., Lowell.
LeBaron, Mrs. E. L., Brockton.
Lees, Mrs. Thomas, Lowell.
Lehan, Mr. Albert L., Mansfield.
Leith, Mrs. Royal W., Dedham.
Leland, Mr. Joseph D., Hyde Park.
Leland, Mr. Lester H., Middleboro.
Leonard, Mr. John E., Wellesley.
Leonard, Mr. Philip E., Camden, Maine.
LeRoy, Mr. Joseph P., Jamaica, N. Y.
LeRoyer, Mrs. Jenny, Boston.
Leveroue, Miss Cecelia A., Brighton.
Lewis, Mrs. Alfred C, Taunton.
Lewis, Mrs. Myron P., Beverly Farms.
Lewis, Mrs. Paul M., Lexington.
Liffler, Mrs. Charles, Jr., Cambridge.
Lilly, Miss Elizabeth F., Worcester.
Lincoln, Mrs. Edith W., Norwell.
Linscott, Mrs. James M., Wellesley
Litch, Mr. Clesson M., Fitchburg.
Little, Mrs. E., Haverhill.
Little, Mrs. G. W., West Roxbury.
Little, Mr. Leslie T., Waltham.
Livermore, Mr. A. A., Maiden.
Locke, Miss Marinda, Wellesley.
Loring, Miss Ruth, Cambridge.
Lounsbury, Mrs. Frances E., Medford.
Lounsbury, Miss Mabelle E., Roslin-
Loveland, Miss Alice, Newton.
Lovell, Mr. Charles J., Pasadena, Calif.
Lovett, Miss Caroline A., West Newton.
Loveys, Mrs. A. 0., Arlington.
Lowd, Mrs. Harry M., Swampscott.
* Lowell, Mrs. John, Boston.
Lucier, Mr. Eugene A., Haverhill.
Lurie, Miss Anne Brookline.
Lynch, Miss Helena F., South Boston.
Lynch, Mrs. Marion E., Dorchester.
Lynn, Mr. Albert H., Jamaica Plain.
Lyon, Mrs. Waldo V., Winchester.
MacDowell, Mr. A. E., Newton.
Maclver, Mrs. John, Maiden.
Mackintosh, Mr. Richard B., Peabody.
Mahlmann, Miss Lucy G., Melrose
Maiers, Mr. William C, Jr., Jamaica
March, Mrs. Robert I., Greenfield.
Marchant, Mrs. Frank L., Danvers.
Marcy, Mrs. Henry A., Newton.
Margeson, Mr. Gilbert T., Rockport.
Marshall, Mrs. L. L., Wellesley.
Marson, Mrs. Rufus D., West Newton.
Marstone, Mr. John P., Winchester.
Martin, Mrs. Frank C, Grafton.
Mason, Mr. Daniel W., Ayer.
Mason, Mr. Fred, Portland, Maine.
Matson, Mr. Isaac F., Westport Harbor.
Matteson, Mrs. Bertha E., Brockton.
Matthews, Mr. Daniel, Manchester.
Matthews, Mr. Lloyd, Jamaica Plain.
Mauran, Miss Julia L., Hope, R. I.
Maurice, Mrs. George, Eagle Springs,
Maxfield, Mrs. George H., State Farm.
May, Mrs. Gertrude, Maynard.
Mayer, Mrs. Charles E., Wellesley
McAllister, Mr. Gregory T., Boston.
McCabe Mrs. Edward H., Lawrence.
McCallum, Mrs. Gladys A., East Wey-
McClearn, Mrs. Emma A., Plymouth.
McCrea, Miss Lily A., Boston.
McDonnell, Mr. Thomas J., Long
Island, N. Y.
McDougall, Mr. Kenneth, Wellesley
McGennis, Mrs. F. M., Waltham.
McGregor, Mr. James, Milton.
McHardy, Miss Ethel, Quincy.
Mclntire, Mr. Allyn B., Newton.
Mclntyre, Dr. F. D., Danvers.
McKeen, Mrs. S. F., Brookline.
McLean, Mr. James, West Somerville.
McMillan, Mrs. A. L., Concord, N. H.
McMullen, Mr. Walter, Watertown.
McQuesten, Mrs. Phillip, Nashua, N. H.
McWain, Mrs. D. Ernest, Wellesley
Meigs, Mrs. R. J., Lowell.
Melcher, Mr. Arthur C, Newton Cen-
*Melcher, Mrs. Arthur C, Newton Cen-
Mellen, Miss N. Theresa, Deerfield.
NEW MEMBERS IN 1929
Mellish, Mrs. Murray H., Maiden.
Melville, Mr. Richard, Beachbluffs.
Meriam, Mr. Richard S., South Lincoln.
Mero, Miss Emma, Maiden.
Merriam, Miss Helen I., Westminster.
Merrill, Miss Marie, Haverhill.
Merritt, Miss Blanche L., Lynn.
Merritt, Miss Ella M., Barrington, R. I.
Messenger, Miss Mary E., Melrose
Messer, Miss A. Louise, Salem.
Messinger, Mr. C. Raymond, Amster-
dam, N. Y.
Metzger, Mr. Albert E., Indianapolis,
Miesse, Mr. Harry, Indianapolis, Ind.
Miller, Miss Zoe, Roxbury.
Mills, Miss Nellie L., West Newton.
Milne, Mrs. William D., Lexington.
Milstein, Miss Dora B., Dorchester.
Miltenberger, Mr. Roy W., Milton.
Minns, Miss Grace W., Boston.
Mitchell, Mr. F., Melrose.
Mitchell, Mr. Robert A., Salem.
Mitchell, Mrs. Walter J., Manchester.
Mongan, Mr. Frank T., Scranton, Pa.
Moody, Mr. Leance B.. Watertown.
Moore, Mr. Carlos B., Wellesley Hills.
Moore, Mrs. Carrie E., Cliftondale.
Moore, Mr. Clyde B., Greensburg, Pa.
Moore, Mrs. E. A., Milton.
Moore, Dr. Horace D., Cliftondale.
Morang, Mr. W. F., Lexington.
Morgan, Mrs. Fred L., Newton Center.
Morrill, Mr. Cecil T., West Newbury.
Morrill, Mrs. Joseph, Dedham.
Morse, Mrs. C. A., Wollaston
Morse, Mrs. F. W., Brockton.
*Morse, Mrs. Louise C, Hyde Park.
Morse, Miss Rowena H., West Medford.
*Morss, Mr. John Wells. Boston.
Motte, Mr. M. Irving, Concord.
Motte, Mrs. M. I., Concord.
Moulton, Mrs. Gilman L., Boston.
Mowatt, Mr. W. C, Wollaston.
Mulla, Mrs. Maria, Rockland.
Mullen, Mrs. James E., Brockton.
Mullin, Mr. Charles W. H., Dorchester.
Mundy, Mrs. A. J., Millis.
Munroe, Mr. Wilbur J., Melrose.
Munson, Mr. W. D., South Britain,
Murfitt, Mrs. Samuel C, Milton.
Murphy, Mr. Gerald J., Boston.
Murray, Mr. Jack O., Needham.
Musgrave, Mrs. Arthur F., Truro.
Myrick, Miss Velina F., Sharon.
Nash, Mrs. Charles, Bridgewater.
Nass, Mrs. Ina, Somerville.
Nazro, Mrs. Arthur P., Jamaica Plain.
Nelson, Mrs. Grace L., Sharon.
Ness, Mr. John R., Greenwich, Conn.
Newbegin, Mrs. Robert, Toledo, Ohio.
Newbold, Mr. T. Jefferson, Boston.
Newell, Mrs. E. Raymond, Uxbridge.
Newton, Mrs. J. Edward, Little Comp-
ton, R. I.
Nichols, Mrs. Brayton L., Walpole.
Nichols, Mr. George E., Marblehead.
Nickerson, Mr. Henry P., Boston.
Niles, Mrs. H. L., East Lynn.
Noel, Miss Leah M., Bridgewater.
Norcross, Mrs. William W., Wellesley
Normand, Mrs. Annie, Ayer.
Norris, Mr. Winthrop G., Rockport.
Northey, Mr. Herbert W., Marblehead.
Norton, Mrs. Frances T., Boston.
Novak, Miss Ella E., Cambridge.
Nugent, Miss Margaret, Roslindale.
*Nye, Dr. Robert N., Chestnut Hill.
Nye, Mrs. Walter B., Marblehead.
O'Brien, Mrs. George H., Norton.
Oelschig, Mrs. A. C, Savannah, Ga.
O'Mahoney, Miss Nellie, Lawrence.
Osgood, Mrs. Everett B., Boston.
Osgood, Miss Florence, Newburyport.
Osterhot, Mr. J. Clark, Chelmsford.
Otis, Mrs. W. C, Woburn.
Packard, Mr. Clifford A., Rockland.
Packard, Mrs. Winthrop, Canton.
Paige, Mrs. Arthur W., Ware.
Paine, Mrs. Everett, Marblehead.
Palmer, Mrs. E. W., West Medford.
Palmer, Mrs. Grant M., Weston.
Paolucci, Miss Laura L., East Milton.
Papin, Mr. Edward V., Rye Beach,
Park, Mrs. E. E., Oklahoma City, Okla.
Parker, Mr. A. Richman, East Bridge-
Parker, Mrs. J. W., Marshfield Hills.
Parker, Miss Willetta, Switzerland.
Parsons, Mrs. Frank W., Gloucester.
Parsons, Mrs George, Newbury.
Patten, Mrs William E., Mattapan.
Payne, Mr. Gavin L., Indianapolis, Ind.
Payson, Mrs. C. Lilian, Haverhill.
Payson, Mrs. Charles S., North Wey-
Pearce, Mrs. Alexander, Arlington.
Pearson, Mr. Walter F., Lynnfield Cen-
Peaslee, Miss E. Isabel, Cambridge.
Peirce, Mrs. George E., Providence,
Perkins, Mrs. Harry, Bridgewater.
Perkins, Mrs. Henry, Bridgewater.
Perkins, Mrs. Russell B., Wakefield.
Perley. Mr. Palmer S., Rowley.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Perrin, Mr. J. G., Longmeadow.
Perry, Miss Ethel M., Dorchester.
Perry, Mrs. George W., East Wey
Peters, Mrs. R. Dudley, Milton.
Pettee, Mrs. Otis F., Newton.
Pfeffer, Mr. Paul, South Boston.
Phelps, Mr. Amos A., Rockland.
*Phillip, Mr. John S., Boston.
Pierce, Mrs. J. Gill, Hyde Park.
Pierce, Miss M. Florence, Maiden.
Pike, Mrs. Charles G., Wellesley Hills.
Pike, Miss Hazel, Ohelsea.
Pingree, Mrs. Harriet L., Saugus.
Piper; Mrs. W. E., South Sudbury.
Poland, Mrs. Grace L., Maiden.
Pollard, Mr. Nedd C, Beverly.
Polley, Mr. Joseph L., Islington.
Pond, Mrs. Anna C, "West Roxbury.
Pond, Mrs. Virgil C, Brookline.
Pool, Mr. Sterling H., Boston.
Poole, Mrs. Gardner, South Sudbury.
Poole, Mrs. Ralph D., Brockton.
Pope, Mr. Samuel D., Wakefield.
Porter, Mr. Henry M., Quincy.
Porter, Mrs. Joseph G., Peabody.
Porter, Mr. Willard B., Salem.
Potter, Mr. F. 0., Fargo, N. D.
Potter, Mrs. Murray A., Lancaster.
*Potter, Mr. Page Field, Providence,
Powell, Mr. Frank H., Reading.
Powers, Miss Grace M., Cambridge.
Pratt, Mrs. Arthur E., Bridgewater.
Pratt, Mrs. Ernest S., Middleboro.
Pratt, Mrs. Howard, Bridgewater.
Pratt, Mrs. Lyman A., Bridgewater.
Pratt, Mr. Oliver G., Salem.
Pratt, Mrs. W. B., Hyde Park.
Pratt, Mrs. W. P., Ashland.
Pratt, Mrs. Walter P., Salem.
Prescott, Mr. Edgar B., Laconia, N. H.
Proctor, Mrs. Charles A., Boston.
*Proctor, Mrs. Frederick L., Utica,
Purdie, Mrs. G. A., Wellesley Hills.
Purdy, Mr. Wilfred G., Amherst.
Putnam, Mrs. Augusta N., Lynn.
Putnam, Mrs. Lewis A., Lowell.
Quigley, Mrs. William E., South Brain-
Ractliffe, Miss May M., Roslindale.
Raddin, Mr. J. Arthur, Cliftondale.
Rae, Mr. George L., Dover.
*Rae, Mr. William M., Jamaica Plain.
Randall, Mr. John W., Monmouth,
Randall, Mrs. Louise C, Brockton.
Ranger, Mr. Lynn M., Lynn.
Rantoul, Mrs. William G., Salem.
Raub, Mrs. Edgar L., Needham.
Raymond, Mr. Byron, Wellesley.
Raymond, Mrs. Irving E., Stamford,
Read, Mrs. Charles C, Arlington.
Redmond, Miss Margaret, Boston.
Reed, Mrs. Chester A., Boston.
Reed, Miss Ida B., Marion.
Reed, Miss Mary E., Cambridge.
Reilly, Miss Mary L., Brockton.
Reinhardt, Mr. George F., Waban.
*Remick, Mrs. F. W., West Newton.
Renaud, Mr. Hector H., Norfolk.
Rengerman, Mr. William, Southwick.
Rice, Mrs. 0. G., Ipswich.
Rice, Miss Margaret P., Providence,
Rice, Mr. William C, Boston.
Richardson, Mrs. Alfred, Ayer.
Richmond, Mrs. Charles F., Brookline.
Richmond, Mrs. George, Bridgewater.
Richmond, Mrs. S., Taunton.
Ricker, Mrs. A. M., Lowell.
Riley, Mr. Fred S., Medford.
Rising, Mrs. Frederick C, Newton
Roach, Mr. Orman P., East Lynn.
Robbins, Miss Mabel L., Stoneham.
Roberts, Mrs. E. Marion, West Bridge-
Roberts, Mrs. F. A., Belmont.
Roberts, Mrs. Frank E., Boston.
Roberts, Dr. L. A., Dorchester.
Robertson, Mr. W. V. M., Birmingham,
Robertson, Mrs. William A., Opelousas,
Robinson, Mr. E. D., Wallingford,
Robinson, Mr. Milton, Jamaica Plain.
Robson, Mr. George R., Tyngsborough .
Rockwell, Mrs. Charles B., Jr., Bristol,
Rogers, Mrs. Horatio, Newton Center.
Rogers, Mr. Joseph W. R., Canton.
Rogers, Miss Lucy, Boston.
Rollins, Mrs. Sherwood, Boston.
Ronald, Mr. A. M., Exeter, N. H.
Rooney, Mrs. John H., Dedham.
Rose, Miss Ethel, Newton.
Rose, Mrs. Robert W., Clifton.
Rose, Mr. Stephen D., Clifton.
Ross, Mrs. Lucy M., Marblehead.
Rowbotham, Mrs. John T., Dorchester.
Roy, Mr. W. Ormiston, Montreal, Can-
Ruelberg, Dr. Reinhold, Brighton.
Runnells, Mr. John, Lynn.
Sadlier, Mr. Charles W., Walden, N. Y.
Sampson, Miss L. Edith, Troy, N. Y.
NEW MEMBERS IN 1929
Samson, Mrs. Edward, Brookline.
Sanford, Mr. 0. Ernest, Greenwood.
Sanger, Mr. Karl E., Framingham.
Satady, Miss Margaret Robertson,
Saunders, Miss L. Maude, Boston.
Sauter, Mr. George M., Belmont.
Sawtelle, Mrs. Harry F., North Scitu-
Sawyer, Mrs. E. J., Newton.
Sawyer, Mr. Henry B., Boston.
Sawyer, Miss Mary T., Boston.
Scammon, Miss Edith, Brookline.
Schagen, Mr. Rose H., Haverhill.
Scheffy, Mrs. E. L., West Mansfield.
Schley, Mrs. R. M., Rockport.
Schmidt, Mrs. A. P., Jamaica Plain.
Scholz, Mr. Richard W., South Brain-
Schubert, Miss Bernice G., Roxbury.
Scott, Miss Anne, Cambridge.
Scott, Miss Mary, Medford.
Scott, Miss Mary A., Framingham.
Seagrave, Mrs. George E., Wellesley.
Searles, Mr. John W., Plymouth.
Sears, Mrs. Frank D., Hyde Park.
Sears, Mr. Philip S., Brookline.
Sebastian, Mrs. L. A., West Acton.
Seeley, Mrs. Elisha B., Newton Center.
Segerstrom, Mrs. David, Arlington.
Sharkey, Mr. James T., Dorchester.
Shaw, Mrs. Edgar D., New York, N. Y.
Shaw, Miss Elizabeth C., Cambridge.
Shaw, Miss Miriam, Harvard. ■
Shea, Mrs. David P., Boston.
Shelton, Miss Emma D., Jamaica Plain.
Shepard, Mrs. T. H., Brookline.
Sherman, Dr. F. M., West Newton.
Shew ell, Mr. Robert L., Milton.
Shove, Miss Margaret, Fall River.
Sill, Mrs. Francis J., Westboro.
Silbsbury, Miss Florence, Salem.
Silsby, Miss Alice A., Bradford.
Silva, Mr. W. A., Plymouth.
Simmons, Mrs. Fay A., Wellesley.
Simonds, Mrs. G. H., North Andover.
Simpson, Mrs. A. D., West Somerville.
Sinclair, Mr. Harry R., Worcester.
Sinclair, Mrs. Harry R., Worcester.
Skinner, Mrs. B. Warren, Lynnfield
Skinner, Mr. Frank A., Princeton.
Skinner, Mr. Henry T., Ithaca, N. Y.
Slade, Mr. Wesley L., Everett.
Sleeper, Mrs. F. W., Medford Hillside.
Smalley, Mr. F. H., Auburndale.
Smith, Mrs. A. M., Roslindale.
Smith, Mrs. Anson H., Dedham.
Smith, Miss Charlotte, Melrose High-
Smith, Miss Florence S., Lawrence.
Smith, Mrs. Gabriel, West Somerville.
Smith, Miss Gile, Maiden.
Smith, Miss Jessica, Dorchester.
Smith, Mrs. S. J., Lowell.
Smith, Mr. Sherwood S„ Newton Cen-
Smith, Mrs. Whipple F., Beach Bluff.
Snow, Mrs. Grace G., Wellfleet.
Snow, Miss Hattie E., Winchester.
Snow, Miss Rachel P., Falmouth.
Soderholtz, Mr. E. E., West Goulds-
Spalding, Mr. George F. f Newton Cen-
Speares, Mr. Albert, Needham.
Speed, Miss Mary Louise, London,
Spencer, Mrs. George O., Augusta,
Sperry, Mrs. Marcy L., Milton.
Spooner, Mrs. F. W., Auburndale.
Sprague, Mrs. Charles F., Swampscott.
*Sprague, Mr. Isaac, Jr., Wellesley
Sprague, Mrs. Isaac, Jr., Wellesley
Sprague, Miss L. Gertrude, Dorchester.
Sprague, Mrs. Laurelle E., Swampscott.
Sproul, Mrs. F. W., Brockton.
Stackpole, Mrs. Maud C, Boston.
Stacy, Mrs. Harold W., Annisquam.
Start, Mrs. A. O., Union, Maine.
Stearns, Mr. George H., Sharon.
Stearns, Mrs. P. J., Bedford.
Stearns, Mrs. Roland D., Chestnut Hill.
Stetson, Mrs. Graydon, Boston.
Stetson, Mrs. Herbert O., Waban.
Stevens, Miss Grace 0., Marlboro.
Stevens, Miss Mildred F., Westwood.
Stevens, Mrs. Samuel D., North And-
Stever, Mr. Harry C, Yarmouthport.
Stewart, Mr. Arnold T., Boston.
Stewart, Mrs. Ethel S., New York,
Stiles, Mrs. James A., Gardner.
Stillings, Mrs. Herbert S., North And-
Stillings, Miss Marie L., Winchester.
*Stone, Mrs. Galen L., Brookline.
Storey, Mrs. Charles R., Brockton.
Stover, Mrs. Charles L., Lowell.
Strout, Mr. V. L., Waltham.
Sturtevant, Mr. L. H., Quincy.
Sullivan, Mr. Robert A., Belmont.
Sumner, Miss Amie M., Canton.
Sumner, Mrs. George N, Canton.
Sumner, Miss Mary A., Scituate.
Sutton, Mr. William P., Cambridge.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Swain, Mrs. J. S., Cambridge.
Swain, Mrs. Ralph G., Brockton.
Swett, Miss Frances L., Gloucester.
Swift, Mrs. Herbert D., Boston.
Sylva, Miss Eleanor, Gloucester.
Sylvester, Mr. Howard, North Abing-
Symonds, Mrs. Herbert S., Dedham.
Taber, Mr. Arthur H., Boston.
Taber, Mrs. Wendell, Boston.
Tait, Mr. James, Brookline.
Talbot, Mr. Joseph F., North Billerica.
Taylor, Miss Ada L., Hartford, Conn.
Taylor, Mrs. Charles H., Jr., Dover.
Taylor, Miss Elizabeth M., Boston.
Taylor, Mrs. Frank, Bridgewater.
Taylor, Mrs. G. W., Brookline.
Taylor, Mr. Harold, New Augusta, Ind.
Temple, Mrs. G. F., Reading.
Tewksbury, Miss Marjorie, Winthrop.
Thacher, Mrs. F. G., Hyannis.
Thain, Miss Lillian F., Boston.
Thaxter, Mr. Roland, Cambridge.
Thayer, Mr. F. E., Lexington.
Thorn, Mrs. D. A., Milton.
Thomas, Mr. George C, Swampscott.
Thomas, Miss May V., Brookline.
Thompson, Mrs. C. T., Boston.
Thompson, Mr. E. Ward, Quincy.
Thompson, Miss Helen L., Halifax.
Thompson, Miss Lenora E., Cambridge.
Thralls, Mrs. Luna H., Hymera, Ind.
Thresher, Mrs. George A., Williams-
Thurston, Mrs. Edith L., Swampscott.
Tillock, Mr. John, Southborough.
Tilton, Mrs. A. T., Vineyard Haven.
Tingle, Mr. Leamon G., Pittsville, Md.
Tingley, Mrs. Arthur C, Tewksbury.
Tinkham, Mr. Eugene L., Hopedale.
Tirrell, Mrs. Katherine, Hyde Park.
Tirrell, Mrs. Martha R., Wells, Maine.
Todd, Mr. Thomas, Boston.
Tompkins, Miss Alma, Pigeon Cove.
Townsend, Miss Miriam, Melrose High-
*Tozzer, Mrs. Alfred, Cambridge.
Tucker, Miss Blanche E., Boston.
Tucker, Mr. T. Gordon, Baldwinsville.
Tuckerman, Mrs. Bayard, Jr., South
Tufts, Mrs. Eugene Brookline.
Turnbull, Mrs. Frank, Rockport.
Turner, Mrs. Alfred C, Waban.
Turner, Mr. Fred H., Woburn.
Turner, Miss Hattie E., Wollaston.
Turner, Mr. John C., Boston.
Tuttle, Mr. Henry C, Wellesley Hills.
Tyler, Mrs. J. F., Boston.
Vallandigham, Mrs. E. N., Chestnut
Van Arsdale, Mrs. Alice N., Buffalo,
Van Fleet, Mr. Gerald H., Maiden.
Van Ness, Mrs. Cornelius, New Canaan,
Van Nest, Mrs. C. E., Stratford, Conn.
Van Tol, Mr. Cornelius, Falmouth.
Van Vleck, Mrs. H. D., Cambridge.
Van Vleck, Miss Marion G., Cambridge.
Varnum, Mrs. Thomas H., Lowell.
Vedeler, Mrs. George T., Cohasset.
Veitch, Mrs. Johnstone D., New Haven,
Vestal, Mrs. Anne N., Knoxville, Tenn.
Vickery, Dr. Lucia F., Jamaica Plain.
Vickery, Mrs. Robert G„ Brookline.
Vorenberg, Mrs. Felix, Boston.
Vose, Miss Hattie M., Stoughton.
*Wadsworth, Mr. Eliot, Boston.
Wadsworth, Mrs. Eliot, Boston.
Wagner, Miss Margaret, Canton.
Walke, Mr. William T., Salem.
Walker, Mrs. Hugh L., Newton Center.
Walkley, Mrs. Edward I., Marblehead.
Wallace, Mrs. Arthur J., Newtonville.
Wallace, Mr. J. Allen, Milford.
Wallace, Miss Jennie Wilder, Boston.
Wallace, Jr., Mr. John B., New Haven,
Wallace, Miss Margaret J., Manchester,
Wallis, Mrs. Fred F., Beverly.
Walsh, Mr. William J., Wellesley.
Ward, Miss Erne, Auburndale.
Ward, Mrs. Sarah S., East Lynn.
Ware, Mr. Charles B., New London,
Warr. Mr. James, Worcester.
Washburn, Mr. William S., Brockton.
Watkins, Mr. Willard H., Cambridge.
Watson, Mrs. George H., Milton.
Watson, Miss Mabel D., Cambridge.
Watson, Miss Minyan, Taunton.
Watson, Mr. Robert, Walpole, N. H.
Weatherup, Mr. Thomas, Cohasset.
Webber, Miss Isabel, Gloucester.
Webster, Mrs. George G,, Sharon.
Webster, Mr. William H., Great Bar-
Wentworth, Mrs. Annie L., Lexington.
Wesson, Mrs. A. G., Worcester.
Westhaver, Mr. A. H., Maiden.
Wheeler, Miss Adeline E., Boston.
Wheeler, Mr. Jay H., Hood River, Ore.
Wheeler, Mr. Robert, West Newbury.
Wheeler, Mr. S. B., Needham.
Whitacre, Mrs. Emily S., St. Paul,
NEW MEMBERS IN 1929
Whitaker, Mrs. Joseph W., East Nor-
White, Miss Gertrude M., Andover,
White, Mr. H. Linwood, Danvers.
White, Mrs. Ralph W., Bridgewater.
Whitney, Miss Henrietta P., West New-
Whitney, Mrs. John G., Boston.
Whitney, Mr. Oren F., Biddeford,
*Whitney, Jr., Mr. Theodore T., Mil-
♦Whittle, Mrs. Helen G., Peterboro,
Wiggin, Mr. H. Theron, Wellesley.
Wiggins, Miss Bernice L., Arlington
Wilder, Mrs. Louise Beebe, Bronxville,
Willcox, Miss Mary Alice, Newtonville.
Williams, Mr. Alexander K., Roslindale.
Williams, Mr. A. T., Boston.
Williams, Mr. Boylston, Wellesley.
Williams, Mr. Edward, Boston.
Williams, Mr. John H, Waltham.
Williams, Mr. R. Boak, Dorchester.
Williams, Mrs. Roger, Canton.
Williamson, Mr. Charles A., Brockton.
Wilmarth, Mr. E. R., North Attleboro.
Wilson, Mrs. W. S., Roslindale.
Wing, Mrs. A. B., West Somerville.
Winter, Mrs. Edna R., Cambridge.
Witbeck, Mrs. L. W., Waban.
Witherby, Mr. J. B., New York, N. Y.
Witt, Mr. Edward A., Conneautville,
Wolcott, Mr. Oliver, Hamilton.
Wolfe, Miss Martha, Medford.
Wood, Miss Annie B., Brookline.
Wood, Mr. C. A., Brooktondale, N. Y.
Wood, Mrs. Charles M., Ipswich.
Wood, Mrs. Frank H, Arlington.
Wood, Mrs. W. Rufus, Taunton.
Woodbury, Mrs. Eva A., Framingham
Woodbury, Mr. Ray W., Cambridge.
Woodman, Miss F. R., Arlington.
Woodward, Mr. 0. C, Plainville.
Woodworth, Miss Laura A., Fitchburg.
Worth, Mr. T. F., Lynn.
Wright, Mr. 0. S., Hathorne.
Wright, Mrs. Charles M., Woburn.
Wright, Mrs. Ellen E., West Newton.
Wright, Miss Flora B., Roslindale.
Wright, Mrs. Stephen E., Auburndale.
Wrightington, Mrs. Edgar N., Brook-
Wyman, Mr. Charles F., Arlington.
Wyman, Miss M. Louise, Worcester.
Wyman, Mr. William U., Winchester.
Yauney, Mrs. G. V., Ralston, Neb.
Yeames, Mr. Harold A., Arlington.
Yerrington, Miss Elizabeth, Arlington.
Young, Mrs. C. E., Methuen.
Young, Mr. Charles A., Melrose High-
Young, Mr. Nicholas, Newton.
Zara, Mrs. F. A., Long Island, N. Y.
Library Bureau Cat. no. 1! 37